Xin dynasty

Xindynastic turbulencethe regimeusurpationWang Mang interregnumXin ("New") dynastyXin dynasty, ChinaXin empire
The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one monarch) which lasted from 9 to 23 CE.wikipedia
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Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
It is often considered an interregnum period of the Han dynasty, dividing it into the Western Han and the Eastern Han.
It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang.

Wang Mang

Emperor of ChinainterruptionTenpō
In contrast, the Wang family grew powerful during the rule of Emperor Cheng of Han, and its leading member Wang Mang used his influence to act as regent for several young puppet emperors.
Wang Mang (, c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") dynasty, ruling 9–23 AD.

Dynasties in Chinese history

dynastydynastiesChinese dynasties
The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one monarch) which lasted from 9 to 23 CE.
Dynasties usually considered to have unified this region include the Qin dynasty, the Western Han, the Xin dynasty, the Eastern Han, the Western Jin, the Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty, the Northern Song, the Yuan dynasty, the Ming dynasty, and the Qing dynasty.

Red Eyebrows

ChimeiRed Eyebrows RebellionChimei Rebellion
The most powerful factions along the Yellow River reorganized into rebel armies, known as the Red Eyebrows.
The Red Eyebrows was one of the two major agrarian rebellion movements against Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty, the other being Lülin.

Yellow River

YellowHuang HeYellow River Valley
Wang's regime was also destabilized by several natural disasters, as the Yellow River changed course, resulting in massive floods.
Major flooding in AD 11 is credited with the downfall of the short-lived Xin dynasty, and another flood in AD 70 returned the river north of Shandong on essentially its present course.

Chang'an

ChanganChang-AnChang’an
Upon hearing of this event, the irregular militias of Zhuang Ben and Zhuang Chun captured Chang'an in October 23, plundering the capital and killing Wang Mang.
During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored.

Lulin

Lülinpeasant rebellionGreen Forest
Led by Liu Bosheng, they became known as the Lulin.
Lulin (, 'green forest') was one of two major agrarian rebellion movements against Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty in the modern southern Henan and northern Hubei regions.

Liu Yan (Xin dynasty)

Liu YanLiu Yan (Bosheng)Liu Bosheng
Led by Liu Bosheng, they became known as the Lulin.
Liu Yan (died 23 AD), courtesy name Bosheng, was a general of one of the major uprisings against the Xin Dynasty and its emperor, Wang Mang.

Xiongnu

Xiongnu EmpireSouthern XiongnuNorthern Xiongnu
In contrast, relations with the nomadic Xiongnu confederation quickly deteriorated, and the latter intended to intervene in China around 10/11.
Tributary relations were discontinued during the reign of Huduershi (18 AD–48), corresponding to the political upheavals of the Xin Dynasty in China.

Battle of Kunyang

he returned to Kunyang, he began harassing the besieging Xin forcesLülin Rebellion
The Xin armies scored several victories, but were completely defeated by Han restorationist armies during the Battle of Kunyang in June–July 23.
The Battle of Kunyang was fought between June–July in 23 AD, between the Lulin and Xin forces.

Wang Lang (Xin dynasty)

Wang LangWang Chang
The Red Eyebrows were defeated by Liu Xu's forces in 27, and he also destroyed other rival claimants as well as separatist regimes such as Wang Lang's Zhao state, Gongsun Shu's Chengjia empire, and warlord Wei Ao in the northwest.
Wang Lang (d. 24), originally named Wang Chang, was one of the famous heroes who rose during the end of the Xin dynasty.

Gongsun Shu

龍興
The Red Eyebrows were defeated by Liu Xu's forces in 27, and he also destroyed other rival claimants as well as separatist regimes such as Wang Lang's Zhao state, Gongsun Shu's Chengjia empire, and warlord Wei Ao in the northwest.
Gongsun Shu (, died 24 December 36 AD) was a governor and warlord of the Xin dynasty and early Eastern Han dynasty who controlled the region of modern-day Sichuan, proclaiming himself as the Emperor of Chengjia in 25 AD.

Emperor Guangwu of Han

Emperor GuangwuLiu XiuGuangwu
In 25, Liu Xu was crowned emperor in Luoyang.
Liu Yan was ambitious, and ever since Wang Mang usurped the Han throne in 8 and established the Xin dynasty, Liu Yan was constantly considering starting a rebellion to restore the Han Dynasty.

Chengjia

The Red Eyebrows were defeated by Liu Xu's forces in 27, and he also destroyed other rival claimants as well as separatist regimes such as Wang Lang's Zhao state, Gongsun Shu's Chengjia empire, and warlord Wei Ao in the northwest.
Chengjia (25–36 AD), also called the Cheng dynasty or Great Cheng, was a self-proclaimed empire established by Gongsun Shu in 25 AD after the collapse of the Xin dynasty of Chinese history, rivalling the Eastern Han dynasty founded by Emperor Guangwu later in the same year.

Protectorate of the Western Regions

Protector General of the Western RegionsProtector-General of the Western RegionsProtector General
Wang was forced to shift troops from other areas to deal with the Red Eyebrows, whereupon the Protectorate of the Western Regions was overrun by the Xiongnu.
After at least 18 different protector generals, of whose names only 10 of their names are known, the post was abandoned, by the time of Wang Mang's Xin dynasty in 23 CE.

Han–Xiongnu War

Han-Xiongnu Warbattles against the Xiongnucampaigns against the Xiongnu
Wang was forced to shift troops from other areas to deal with the Red Eyebrows, whereupon the Protectorate of the Western Regions was overrun by the Xiongnu.
In 9 AD, the Han official Wang Mang usurped the Han throne and proclaimed a new Chinese dynasty, known as Xin.

Ancient Chinese coinage

Chinese coinChinese coinscoins
Wang Mang was a nephew of the Dowager Empress Wang, In AD 9, he usurped the throne, and founded the Xin Dynasty.

Interregnum

interregnaorphanedGerman Interregnum
It is often considered an interregnum period of the Han dynasty, dividing it into the Western Han and the Eastern Han.

Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor WuHan WudiLiu Che
After the death of Emperor Wu of Han, the ruling family of the Han Empire was increasingly beset by factional struggles.

Emperor Cheng of Han

Emperor ChengChengCheng of Han
In contrast, the Wang family grew powerful during the rule of Emperor Cheng of Han, and its leading member Wang Mang used his influence to act as regent for several young puppet emperors.

Land reform

land reformsland redistributionagricultural reform
In order to limit the power of the noble families, and solve the empire's economic crisis, he redistributed land from the rich to those who owned nothing, introduced new taxes on slave owning, and replaced the gold currency with a bronze currency.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
Furthermore, Wang patronized education based on Confucianism, taking the Duke of Zhou as his model for a good ruler.

Duke of Zhou

DanZhou GongDuke Zhou
Furthermore, Wang patronized education based on Confucianism, taking the Duke of Zhou as his model for a good ruler.

Natural disasters in China

natural disastersfloodsfloods in mainland China
Wang's regime was also destabilized by several natural disasters, as the Yellow River changed course, resulting in massive floods.

Yangtze

Yangtze RiverYangzi RiverChangjiang
Smaller rebellions broke out in other parts of China: The "Troops from the Lower Yangtze" operated along this river, while two insurgent bands in Hubei were recruited by Han loyalists.