A report on Xinjiang

Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Taklamakan Desert
Tianchi Lake
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Kanas Lake
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC), located in the northwest of the country at the crossroads of Central Asia and East Asia.

- Xinjiang

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Kashgar Prefecture

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Map including Kashgar (1917)
Map including Kashgar and surrounding region from the International Map of the World (AMS, 1966){{efn|From map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"}}
From the Operational Navigation Chart; map including Kashgar Prefecture area (DMA, 1980){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}
Map including Kashgar Prefecture area (northwest) (DMA, 1984){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"}}
"Territory ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963 and never recognized by India" (Trans-Karakoram Tract in southern Kashgar Prefecture)

Kashgar Prefecture, also known as Kashi Prefecture, is located in southwestern Xinjiang, China, located in the Tarim Basin region (roughly the southern half of Xinjiang).

A map of the campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, including the defeat of Kucha

Tang campaign against Kucha

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A map of the campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, including the defeat of Kucha
King Suvarnapuspa of Kucha (ruled 600-625 CE), Cave 69, Kizil Caves.
Emperor Taizong launched military campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (長樂公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
Bust of a bodhisattva from Kucha, 6th–7th century

The Tang campaign against Kucha was a military campaign led by the Tang dynasty general Ashina She'er against the Tarim Basin oasis state of Kucha in Xinjiang, which was aligned with the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Hotan Prefecture

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Windbreak forest in Hotan, July 1993
Melikawat
Musicians at Hotan Sunday Market
Map including ILCHÍ (1865)
Map of the expeditions of Sven Hedin (1906-8) including the southern part of the modern Hotan Prefecture (RGS, early 20th century)
Map including Hotan (labeled as Khotan) (1917)
Map including most of northern Hotan Prefecture area (USATC, 1971){{efn|From map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE".}}
From the Operational Navigation Chart; map including Hotan Prefecture area (DMA, 1980){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}
Map including Hotan Prefecture area (northwest) (DMA, 1984){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"}}
Map including Hotan Prefecture area (northeast) (DMA, 1990){{efn|From map: "The representation of boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}
Map including Hotan Prefecture area (southwest) with Aksai Chin (DMA, 1995){{efn|From map: "The representation of boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}

Hotan Prefecture (also known as Gosthana, Gaustana, Godana, Godaniya, Khotan, Hetian, Hotien) is located in the Tarim Basin region of southwestern Xinjiang, China, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south and Union Territory of Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan to the west.

Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture

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Bayingolin (often abbreviated to Bayingol; also as Bayinguoleng) is an autonomous prefecture for Mongol people in the southeast of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China.

Qiemo County

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The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century CE, showing the Indo-European oasis kingdoms of Kašgar (Kashgar) [violet], Kotan/Hutan [green], Krążania (Krořän/Loulan/Shanshan) [pink], Kuša (Kucha/Ququa) [orange], Ārśi (Agni/Yanqui/Karaxahr) [olive] and Yarkoto/Guśi (Jushi/Turfan) [blue]. Ziemo (Quiemo) lies in the western part of Krořän/Loulan bordering Zhangzhung (Tibet) to the south, and which was since the 1st century CE known under its Chinese name Shanshan.
A view from the space of an alluvial fan in the foothills of the Altyn-Tagh in the western part of the county (37.44861°N, 84.28139°W)
Map of Qiemo (labeled as Ch'ieh-mo) and surrounding area (1975)
Map including Qiemo (labeled as QIEMO (CH'IEH-MO)) and surrounding region (DMA, 1980){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}
Map including Qarqan (labeled as CH'IEH-MO (CHERCHEN) (CH'E-ERH-CH'ENG)) (USATC, 1971)

Qiemo County as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Qarqan County (Uyghur: چەرچەن ناھىيىسى; ), is a county under the administration of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south.

Aksu City

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Baron C. G. E. Mannerheim (in the middle) in Aksu, 1907
Aksu railway station
Map of Aksu (labeled as A-K'O-SU (AK SU YANGI SHAHR)) and surrounding region from the International Map of the World (AMS, 1950){{efn|From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES ON THIS MAP MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"}}
Map including Aksu (DMA, 1981)
From the Operational Navigation Chart; map including Aksu (A-k'o-su) (DMA, 1985){{efn|From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."}}

Aksu is a city in and the seat of Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, lying at the northern edge of the Tarim Basin.

Issyk-Kul Region

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One of the regions of Kyrgyzstan.

One of the regions of Kyrgyzstan.

Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan
Karakol Peak
Lake Issyk-Kul at sundown
Ala Köl Lake in the Terskey Ala-too mountains, Kyrgyzstan
On the plateau between the north shore of Lake Issyk-Kul and the Küngöy Ala-Too Range (near Tamchy)
A mosque in Tamchy village, Issyk-Kul Region
A Yurt camp on the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul
Jeti-Ögüz Rocks

It is surrounded by Almaty Region, Kazakhstan (north), Chüy Region (west), Naryn Region (southwest) and Xinjiang, China (southeast).

Aerial View of The Karakoram Highway

Karakoram Highway

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1300 km national highway which extends from Hasan Abdal in the Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.

1300 km national highway which extends from Hasan Abdal in the Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.

Aerial View of The Karakoram Highway
Aerial View of The Karakoram Highway by hunzographer
Jingle trucks on the Karakoram Highway.
Milestone near Besham in Pakistan.
Highlighted in red is the route of National Highway 35, which is to be completely rebuilt and upgraded under the CPEC agreement. Highlighted in blue is the 175 km road between Gilgit and Skardu which is to be upgraded to a four-lane highway.
The Karakoram Highway in the Xinjiang region of China.
Karakoram Highway near Juglot, where three mountain ranges meet
KKH passing through Passu in Pakistan.
Karakoram Highway in Akto County, Xinjiang
KKH along the Indus River, 2001.
On the Karokoram Highway near Chilas.
Landslides, particularly during the rainy season, sporadically disturb the traffic for several hours.
Karakoram Highway ahead of Juglot, Gilgit
Karakoram Highway view from Altit fort, Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan

The highway connects the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa plus Gilgit-Baltistan with China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Burhan Shahidi in 1950 as Chairman of Xinjiang Province

Burhan Shahidi

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Burhan Shahidi in 1950 as Chairman of Xinjiang Province
Burhan Shahidi in 1929
Burhan Shahidi (2nd row, 2nd from left) at the founding of the Association for the Advancement of Han Culture in Xinjiang in 1937, chaired by the governor Sheng Shicai (1st row, 3rd from left).
Gathering of Chinese Communist leaders in Beijing in June 1950. From left Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Saifuddin Azizi, Mao Zedong, Burhan Shahidi, Zhou Enlai, Deng Liqun and Delin (Sibo translator of Saifuddin).
Burhan Shahidi (right) with Xi Zhongxun (middle) and Saifuddin Azizi (left) in July 1952, after successfully quelling the Ospan Batyr insurgency.

Burhan Shahidi (بۇرھان شەھىدى, برهان شهيدي; ; Бурхан Шахиди; Борһан Шәһиди, Borhan Şähidi; also spelled Bao Erhan; 3 October 1894 – 27 August 1989) was a political leader in Xinjiang, China, during the 20th century.

Map of the campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, including the defeat of Karasahr

Tang campaigns against Karasahr

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The Tang campaigns against Karasahr were two military campaigns sent by Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Karasahr, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

The Tang campaigns against Karasahr were two military campaigns sent by Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Karasahr, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Map of the campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, including the defeat of Karasahr

The city-state, which later became part of Xinjiang), may have been known to its inhabitants by the Tocharian name Agni, which was rendered Yanqi in Chinese sources.