A report on Xinjiang

Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Taklamakan Desert
Tianchi Lake
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Kanas Lake
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC), located in the northwest of the country at the crossroads of Central Asia and East Asia.

- Xinjiang

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Sibe people

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A c. 1809 map of the Ili Region with south on top showing the Sibe Eight Banners (锡伯八旗) stationed across the Ili River from the Manchu Fort Huiyuan (惠远城), exactly where Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County is nowadays

The Sibe or Xibo, are an Tungusic-speaking East Asian ethnic group living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin and Shenyang in Liaoning.

Tibet Autonomous Region

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Province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in Southwest China.

Province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in Southwest China.

Mount Everest
Yamdrok Lake
Namtso Lake
Maitreya Buddha statue of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse
The Yarlung Tsangpo in Shigatse
Lhasa Gonggar Airport, the biggest airport in TAR

The Tibet Autonomous Region spans over 1200000 km2 and is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, after Xinjiang.

(Xinjiang), highlighted red, shown within China

Xinjiang conflict

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(Xinjiang), highlighted red, shown within China
Armed police and metal detector at the Kargilik bazaar
Protesters in Prague, Czech Republic carrying Tibetan and East Turkestan flags, 29 March 2016

The Xinjiang conflict, also known as the East Turkistan conflict, Uyghur–Chinese conflict or Sino-East Turkistan conflict (as argued by the East Turkistan Government-in-Exile), is an ongoing ethnic geopolitical conflict in what is now China's far-northwest autonomous region of Xinjiang also known as East Turkistan.

Kyrgyz people

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The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz, Kirgiz, and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.

The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz, Kirgiz, and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.

Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
A Kyrgyz woman.
A Kyrgyz family
Kyrgyz women offering butter and salt
Kyrgyz eagle hunter
A mosque in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan
China's Kyrgyz people (柯尔克孜族) portrayed on a poster near the Niujie Mosque in Beijing. (Fourth from the left, between the Dongxiang and the Kam).
"Kirgiz Tents" or yurts. 1914
Chinghiz Aitmatov

With the rise to power, the center of the Kyrgyz Khaganate moved to Jeti-su, and brought about a spread south of the Kyrgyz people, to reach Tian Shan mountains and Xinjiang, bringing them into contact with the existing peoples of western China, especially Tibet.

Ladakh

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Region administered by India as a union territory, which constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region and has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.

Region administered by India as a union territory, which constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region and has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.

South Asia in 565 CE
The empire of Kyide Nyimagon divided among his three sons, c. 930 CE. The border between Ladakh/Maryul and Guge-Purang is shown in a thin dotted line, north of Gartok
Royal drinking scene at Alchi Monastery, Ladakh, circa 1200 CE. The king wears a decorated Qabā', of Turco-Persian style. It is similar to [[:File:Royal drinking scene at the entrance of the western monastery at Manguy, 11th to 13th century CE.jpg|another royal scene]] at nearby Mangyu Monastery.
Jama Masjid of Leh next to the Leh Palace
Thikse Monastery, Ladakh
The empire of kings Tsewang Namgyal and Jamyang Namgyal, about 1560–1600 CE
Cham dance during Dosmoche festival in Leh Palace
The disputed territory of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir: divided between Pakistan (green), India (blue) and China (yellow)
National Highway No 1
Ladakh (L) shown in the wider Kashmir region
Map of the central Ladakh region
The confluence of the Indus (flowing left-to-right) and Zanskar (coming in from top) rivers.
The Ladakh region has high altitude
View of Leh Town Along with Stok Kangri
Monthly average temperature in Leh
The black-necked crane comes to India every year for breeding. Photograph has been taken at Tso Kar, Ladakh.
Wild animals of Ladakh
Yaks in Ladakh
Banner of the Administration of Ladakh
Street market in Leh
Preparing apricots. Alchi Monastery.
A vehicle on the Himalaya Highway 3
Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
Thukpa
Dancer in masked dance festival
Jabro Dance
Sul-ma, woman's woollen dress (detail), Ladakh, late 19th-early 20th century
First ever Khelo India Winter Games in Ladakh
Woman wearing traditional Ladakhi hat
Ladakhi Perak Headdress courtesy the Wovenosuls collection
Indian Astronomical Observatory near Leh
Ladakh horsemen, depicted in Alchi Monastery, circa 13th century CE
The nine stupas at Thiksey Monastery
Statue of Maitreya at Likir Monastery, Leh district
Likir Monastery, Ladakh
Phyang Gompa, Ladakh
Hemis Monastery in the 1870s
Pensi La
Shingo La
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Front of the Thiksey Monastery
Likir Monastery
Trees nestled in front of the Himalayas near Leh
Nubra Valley view with reflection
Carved stone tablets, each with the inscription "Om Mani Padme Hum" along the paths of Zanskar

Ladakh is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south, both the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistan-administered Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north.

Kök Bayraq has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.

East Turkestan independence movement

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Political movement that seeks the independence of East Turkestan, a large and sparsely-populated region in northwest China, as a homeland for the Uyghur people.

Political movement that seeks the independence of East Turkestan, a large and sparsely-populated region in northwest China, as a homeland for the Uyghur people.

Kök Bayraq has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
This emblem, featuring the basmalah-stylized tughra (calligraphic monogram), is sometimes used alongside the flag above.
The Second East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived Soviet-backed unrecognized republic in northern Xinjiang.
ETGIE members at Capitol Hill on 14 September 2004

The region is currently administered as a province-level subdivision of the People's Republic of China (PRC), under the official name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR).

Oirats

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Mongol Empire c. 1207
Fragment of medieval Oirat map
Oirat ceremonial hat
The Zunghar Khanate at 1750 (light-blue color)
This map fragment shows territories of the Zunghar Khanate as in 1706. (Map Collection of the Library of Congress: "Carte de Tartarie" of Guillaume de L'Isle (1675–1726))

Oirats (Ойрад, Oirad, or Ойрд, Oird; ; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia.

Map of Central Asia (1873) from T. Douglas Forsyth. Khotan is near top right corner. The border claimed by the British Indian Empire is shown in the two-toned purple and pink band with Shahidulla and the Kilik, Kilian and Sanju Passes north of the border.

Aksai Chin

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Map of Central Asia (1873) from T. Douglas Forsyth. Khotan is near top right corner. The border claimed by the British Indian Empire is shown in the two-toned purple and pink band with Shahidulla and the Kilik, Kilian and Sanju Passes north of the border.
The map shows the Indian and Chinese claims of the border in the Aksai Chin region, the Macartney-MacDonald line, the Foreign Office Line, as well as the progress of Chinese forces as they occupied areas during the Sino-Indian War.
The map given by Hung Ta-chen to the British consul at Kashgar in 1893. The boundary, marked with a thin dot-dashed line, matches the Johnson line:pp. 73, 78
Postal map of China published by the Republic of China in 1917. The boundary in Aksai Chin is as per the Johnson line.
Map including the Aksai Chin region (AMS, 1950)
A 1988 CIA map of the western Indo-Chinese border, showing Aksai Chin and other contested territories
The Tarim River Basin, 2008
Northern plains of Aksai Chin looking towards Qitai Daban (Khitai Dawan)

Aksai Chin is a region administered by China as part of Hotan County, Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang and Rutog County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet.

The eight main dialect areas of Mandarin in Mainland China

Han Chinese

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East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China.

East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China.

The eight main dialect areas of Mandarin in Mainland China
The main varieties of Chinese in mainland China and Taiwan
Lungshan Temple of Manka in Taipei
A female servant and male advisor dressed in silk robes, ceramic figurines from the Western Han era
Map of Tang China in 742, showing the major provinces of the empire
Han Chinese man wears a queue in compliance with Manchu custom during the Qing dynasty
Zhang Zeduan's painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival captures the daily life of people from the Song dynasty at the capital, Bianjing, today's Kaifeng.
A Song dynasty Chinese painting Night Revels of Han Xizai showing scholars in scholar's robes and musicians dressed in a Hanfu variant, 12th-century remake of a 10th-century original by Gu Hongzhong.
A traditional representation of The Vinegar Tasters, an allegorical image representing Buddhists, Confucianists, and Taoists
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC.

Han Chinese are almost the majority in every Chinese province, municipality, and autonomous region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (38% or 40% in 2010) and Tibet Autonomous Region (8% in 2014), where Uighurs and Tibetans are the majority, respectively.

Ili (river)

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River situated in Northwest China and Southeastern Kazakhstan.

River situated in Northwest China and Southeastern Kazakhstan.

Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries
Qing bases in the Ili region, ca. 1809. Note that the map is upside down, i.e. the north is at the bottom, and the east is on the left
On the Kapchagay Reservoir
Balkhash lake with Ili delta
Ili River
Buddhist rock drawings at Ili River
Ili River
The "singing dune" at Altyn-Emel National Park

It flows from the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region to the Almaty Region in Kazakhstan.