A report on Xinjiang

Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Taklamakan Desert
Tianchi Lake
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Kanas Lake
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC), located in the northwest of the country at the crossroads of Central Asia and East Asia.

- Xinjiang

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Kara Khanid Khanate, c. 1000.

Kara-Khanid Khanate

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Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia in the 9th through the early 13th century.

Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia in the 9th through the early 13th century.

Kara Khanid Khanate, c. 1000.
Tomb of Sultan Satuk Bughra Khan, the first Muslim khan, in Artush, Xinjiang
The map of Kara-Khanid Khanate as of 1006 AD when it reached its greatest extent
The Kara-Khanid ruler "Ilig Khan" on horse, submitting to Ghanavid ruler Mahmud of Ghazni, who is riding an elephant.
Genealogy of the Karakhanids
The restored mausoleum of Aisha Bibi near Taraz.
Burana tower, Balasagun, today Kyrgyzstan.
11th–12th-century Karakhanid mausolea in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan.
The Kalyan minaret in Bukhara

The Kara-Khanid Khanate originated from a confederation formed some time in the 9th century by Karluks, Yagmas, Chigils, Tuhsi, and other peoples living in Zhetysu, Western Tian Shan (modern Kyrgyzstan), and Western Xinjiang around Kashgar.

Russians in China

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Ethnic Russians (Pусские в Китае; ) or Russian Chinese, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized in China.

Ethnic Russians (Pусские в Китае; ) or Russian Chinese, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized in China.

The earliest Russian immigrants who came to Xinjiang were the Jirjaks (кержаки in Russian, Old Believers), who were persecuted under the reign of Peter the Great for refusing to convert to the Russian Orthodox Church.

"Tocharian donors", 6th-century mural from the Kizil Caves

Turkic settlement of the Tarim Basin

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"Tocharian donors", 6th-century mural from the Kizil Caves
Tang campaign against the oasis states
Uyghur princesses from the Bezeklik murals
Uyghur princes from the Bezeklik murals

The Turkic peoples were descended from a Transeurasian agricultural community based in northeast China, and they were not recognized as native to the Xinjiang until the area was settled in by Tang-allied Türk (Tujue) tribes in the 7th century, and later by Turkic Uyghur people who founded the Qocho Kingdom there in the 9th century.

Basin scene near Flaming Mountains

Turpan Depression

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Basin scene near Flaming Mountains
Ruins of Gaochang
Map including the Turfan Depression (labeled as T'U-LU-FAN P'EN-TI) (1975)
Qingnian Lu, a Turpan city street shaded by grapevine trellises in China's Grape Valley

The Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression, is a fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far Western China, about 150 km southeast of the regional capital Ürümqi.

Tajikistan

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Landlocked country in Central Asia.

Landlocked country in Central Asia.

The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961–976)
19th-century painting of lake Zorkul and a local Tajik inhabitant
Soviet negotiations with basmachi, 1921
Soviet Tajikistan in 1964
Spetsnaz soldiers during the civil war, 1992
The Palace of Nations in Dushanbe
President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon has ruled the country since 1994.
Supreme Assembly in Dushanbe.
President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon with Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Tajikistan map of Köppen climate classification
Mountains of Tajikistan
Karakul lake
A proportional representation of Tajikistan exports, 2019
A Tajik dry fruit seller
The TadAZ aluminium smelting plant, in Tursunzoda, is the largest aluminium manufacturing plant in Central Asia, and Tajikistan's chief industrial asset.
Real GPD per capita development of Tajikistan
Tajikistan: trends in its Human Development Index indicator 1970–2010
Group of Tajik women
Nowruz celebrations in Tajikistan
Tajik traditional dress
A mosque in Isfara, Tajikistan
A hospital in Dushanbe
Tajik National University in Dushanbe
Tajikistan is a popular destination amongst mountaineers. 1982 expedition to Tartu Ülikool 350.
Ambassador to the Tang dynasty, coming from Kumedh (胡密丹), Tajikistan. Wanghuitu (王会图) circa 650 CE.

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Tajikistan, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region.

Yining

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Yining (labelled as I-NING (KULDJA) 伊寧) (1952)

Yining, also known as Ghulja (غۇلجا) or Qulja (قۇلجا) and formerly Ningyuan , is a county-level city in Northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.

Central Intelligence Agency map of the former British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with present-day borders, showing the Trans-Karakoram Tract in the northern part of the state (hatched red)

Trans-Karakoram Tract

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Area of approximately 2050 sqmi north of the Karakoram watershed, including the Shaksgam valley and Raskam .

Area of approximately 2050 sqmi north of the Karakoram watershed, including the Shaksgam valley and Raskam .

Central Intelligence Agency map of the former British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with present-day borders, showing the Trans-Karakoram Tract in the northern part of the state (hatched red)
The Shaksgam Valley (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) photographed in August 2008
Detailed map showing part of the Trans-Karakoram Tract near the Shaksgam River (United States Army Map Service, 1953)
Official alignment of the Government of Pakistan in 1962. The border is in the extreme north and is depicted as a dotted line with the caption Alignment Official Pakistan Map 1962
Broad Peak lies on the border of the Tract

The tract is administered by China as part of its Taxkorgan and Yecheng counties in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Map showing the Mongol autonomous subjects in the Greater China Area

Mongols in China

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Mongols in China or Mongolian Chinese are ethnic Mongols who were integrated into the nation-building of the Republic of China (1912–1949) after the fall of Qing Empire (1636–1911).

Mongols in China or Mongolian Chinese are ethnic Mongols who were integrated into the nation-building of the Republic of China (1912–1949) after the fall of Qing Empire (1636–1911).

Map showing the Mongol autonomous subjects in the Greater China Area
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Photo by Yvette Borup Andrews in 1920
An ethnic Mongol Chinese musician performing Inner Mongolian style morin khuur

Most of them live in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Qinghai.

Garrisons of the Han dynasty

Protectorate of the Western Regions

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Imperial administration of Han China in the Western Regions.

Imperial administration of Han China in the Western Regions.

Garrisons of the Han dynasty
The modern Tarim Basin and surrounding areas.
Historical cities of the Tarim Basin
Asia in 1 CE. The Western Regions were at the centre of the map (south-west of the Xiongnu)
The Han dynasty (yellow) in 1 CE.
Modern Xinjiang, showing {{legend|blue|the Tarim Basin}}{{legend|red|Dzungaria}}.
1st century BC

These areas would later be termed Altishahr (southern Xinjiang, excluding Dzungaria) by Turkic-speaking peoples.

East Kazakhstan Region

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Region of Kazakhstan.

Region of Kazakhstan.

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The region borders Russia in the north and northeast and the People's Republic of China, via Xinjiang, in the south and southeast.