A report on Xinjiang

Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Taklamakan Desert
Tianchi Lake
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Kanas Lake
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC), located in the northwest of the country at the crossroads of Central Asia and East Asia.

- Xinjiang

278 related topics with Alpha

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Pakistan

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Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Under Nasir's leadership the ISI was also involved in supporting Chinese Muslims in Xinjiang Province, rebel Muslim groups in the Philippines, and some religious groups in Central Asia.

Leh district

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District in the union territory of Ladakh, a territory administered as part of India.

District in the union territory of Ladakh, a territory administered as part of India.

Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
Tsomoriri lake
Pangong lake
Leh district flower fields and mountains

It is bounded on the north by Gilgit-Baltistan's Kharmang and Ghanche districts and Xinjiang's Kashgar Prefecture and Hotan Prefecture linked via the historic Karakoram Pass.

Almaty Region

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Region of Kazakhstan, located in the southeastern part of the country.

Region of Kazakhstan, located in the southeastern part of the country.

The region borders Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

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The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.

First East Turkestan Republic

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Short-lived breakaway Islamic republic founded on 12 November 1933; it was the first state to style itself an "Islamic republic."

Short-lived breakaway Islamic republic founded on 12 November 1933; it was the first state to style itself an "Islamic republic."

Territorial extent of the first ETR in 1933-34
Uyghur rebels
Territorial extent of the first ETR in 1933-34
Establishment of the Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan on November 12, 1933, in Kashgar
TIRET leaders
Army officers of the TIRET
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Flag of the Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (1933-1934)
Ismail Beg before the Battle of Aksu
Uyghur reinforcements from Khotan marching to Kashgar
Muhammad Amin Bughra (1901-1965), Amir of Khotan Emirate (1933-1934),Vice- Chairman of KMT Xinjiang Government (1948-1949)
Khotan Amir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (1933–1934)
Khotan Amir Abdullah Bughra (1933–1934)
Niyazi Khoja as the president
Sabit Damolla, Prime Minister
Political Map of the East Turkestan Republic in 1947

It was centred on the city of Kashgar in what is today Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

South Asia

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Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Various definitions of South Asia, including the definition by UNSD which was created for "statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."
United Nations cartographic map of South Asia. However, the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries.
While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600–1900 BCE, the mature phase
The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer
Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398
Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court, 1650
British Indian Empire in 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
South Asia's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.
Ethno-linguistic distribution map of South Asia
Mumbai is the financial capital of India with GDP of $400 billion
GDP per capita development in South Asia
Durbar High School, oldest secondary school of Nepal, established in 1854 CE
Lower class school in Sri Lanka
College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan
IInstitute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Nepal
Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah, Afghanistan

The region may also include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which was part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang but also claimed by India.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

In the modern era, words related to Khitay are still used as a name for China by Turkic peoples, such as the Uyghurs in China's Xinjiang region and the Kazakhs of Kazakhstan and areas adjoining it, and by some Slavic peoples, such as the Russians and Bulgarians.

Qing soldiers and Khoja rebels fighting at Yashilkul Lake, 1759

Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas

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Uprising against the Qing dynasty of China, which broke out in 1757 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Uprising against the Qing dynasty of China, which broke out in 1757 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Qing soldiers and Khoja rebels fighting at Yashilkul Lake, 1759
Qing troops enter Ili
Zhao Hui Qing Manchu Bannerman General.

Not long afterwards, the Khoit-Oirat prince Amursana rose up against the Qing and the Khoja Brothers used the opportunity to seize control of the south west part of Xinjiang.

Map of the Lop Nur region, Xinjiang, China by Folke Bergman 1935. The Xiaohe Tomb complex is marked as Ördek’s Necropolis near the center of the map.

Xiaohe Cemetery

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Map of the Lop Nur region, Xinjiang, China by Folke Bergman 1935. The Xiaohe Tomb complex is marked as Ördek’s Necropolis near the center of the map.
The site of the cemetery; the vertical posts indicate the tomb locations
Small Europoid Mask, Lop Nur, China, 2000–1000 BC

The Xiaohe Cemetery, literally "Little River Cemetery" and also known as Ördek’s Necropolis, is a Bronze Age site located in the west of Lop Nur, in Xinjiang, Western China.

Uyghur nationalism

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Form of nationalism which asserts that the Uyghur people, an ethnic minority in China, are a distinct nation.

Form of nationalism which asserts that the Uyghur people, an ethnic minority in China, are a distinct nation.

Currently, the primary and traditional population base of the Uyghur people is Xinjiang, an autonomous region of China, which is also known as "East Turkestan" by advocates of separatists.