A 4th-century BCE silver coin from the Persian province of Yehud Medinata, possibly representing Yahweh enthroned on a winged wheel
Late Bronze Age statuette of a storm god from Phoenician Antaradus
Early Iron Age bull figurine from Bull Site at Dhahrat et-Tawileh (modern West Bank, ancient Ephraim), representing El, Baal or Yahweh
Painting on a jar found at Kuntillet Ajrud, under the inscription "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" (c. 800 BCE)
The Second Temple, as rebuilt by Herod c. 20–10 BCE (modern model, 1:50 scale)
Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem (painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902).

The national god of ancient Israel and Judah.

- Yahweh

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Canaanite religion

The group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries AD. Canaanite religion was polytheistic and, in some cases, monolatristic.

The land of Canaan, which comprises the modern regions of Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. At the time when Canaanite religion was practiced, Canaan was divided into various city states.
Ba'al with raised arm, 14th–12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit), Louvre
The ruins of the excavated city of Ras Shamra, or Ugarit

Asherah, queen consort of El (Ugaritic religion), Elkunirsa (Hittite religion), Yahweh (Israelite religion), Amurru (Amorite religion), Anu (Akkadian religion) and 'Amm (Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia) Symbolized by an Asherah pole in the Hebrew Bible.


Four-letter Hebrew theonym , the name of God in Judaism and Christianity.

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
YHWH in one of the Lachish letters
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE", which in contemporary letters is "IEUE".
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.
A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa
The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

While there is no consensus about the structure and etymology of the name, the form Yahweh is now accepted almost universally.

Creator deity

Deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human religion and mythology.

In Vaishnava Puranic scriptures, Brahma emerges on a lotus from Vishnu's navel as Vishnu creates the cosmic cycle, after being emerged by Shiva. Shaivite texts describe that Shiva told Vishnu to create, Shiva ordered Vishnu to make Brahma.
Brahma is often associated with Creation in Hinduism, however has been demoted to a secondary creator in post-Vedic period

In the second story, God, now referred to by the personal name Yahweh, creates Adam, the first man, from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden, where he is given dominion over the animals.

Book of Exodus

Second book of the Bible.

Crossing of the Red Sea, Nicolas Poussin
Children of Israel in Egypt (1867 painting by Edward Poynter)
Finding of Moses in the Dura-Europos synagogue, c. 244
Geography of the Book of Exodus, with the Nile River and its delta, left, Red Sea and Sinai desert, center, and the land of Israel, upper right
Worship of the Golden Calf, Gerrit de Wet, 17th century
Departure of the Israelites by David Roberts, 1829
Moses with the Ten Commandments, by Rembrandt (1659)

It narrates the story of the Exodus, in which the Israelites leave slavery in Biblical Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, who has chosen them as his people.

Heavenly host

Heavenly host (צבאות sabaoth or tzva'ot, "armies") refers to the army of angels mentioned both in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, as well as other Jewish and Christian texts.

Blessed Be the Host of the King of Heaven, a Russian icon from the 1550s
Depiction of the Commander of the Lord's Army in Joshua 5, by Ferdinand Bol, 1642.
Guido Reni's archangel Michael.

In the Hebrew Bible, the name Yahweh and the title Elohim (literally 'gods', usually rendered as 'God' in English translations) frequently occur with the word tzevaot or sabaoth ("hosts" or "armies", Hebrew: צבאות) as YHWH Elohe Tzevaot ("YHWH God of Hosts"), Elohe Tzevaot ("God of Hosts"), Adonai YHWH Tzevaot ("Lord YHWH of Hosts") or, most frequently, YHWH Tzevaot ("YHWH of Hosts").


City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century

Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous—and later monotheistic—religion centred on El/Yahweh.


Hebrew word meaning "gods".

Elohim in Hebrew script. The letters are, right-to-left: aleph-lamed-he-yud-mem.
Friedman's distribution of materials by source of the first four books of the Hebrew Bible, including a redactor (black), according to the documentary hypothesis.

The word Elohim occurs more than 2500 times in the Hebrew Bible, with meanings ranging from "gods" in a general sense (as in, where it describes "the gods of Egypt"), to specific gods (the frequent references to Yahweh as the "elohim" of Israel), to seraphim, and other supernatural beings, to the spirits of the dead brought up at the behest of King Saul in , and even to kings and prophets (e.g., ).

Book of Deuteronomy

Fifth book of the Torah, and the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament.

Moses receiving the Law (top) and reading the Law to the Israelites (bottom)
Moses viewing the Promised Land, Deuteronomy 34:1–5 (James Tissot)
The Book of Deuteronomy, Debarim. Hebrew with translation into Judeo-Arabic, transcribed in Hebrew letters. From Livorno, 1894 CE. Moroccan Jewish Museum, Casablanca.

The second sermon reminds the Israelites of the need to follow Yahweh and the laws (or teachings) he has given them, on which their possession of the land depends.

El (deity)

Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major ancient Near Eastern deities.

Gilded statuette of El from Megiddo
The Destruction of Leviathan by Gustave Doré (1865)
Gebel al-Arak knife Possibly depiction of El with two lions, B.C. 3450

ʼĒl is a generic word for god that could be used for any god, including Hadad, Moloch, or Yahweh.


Geographical place mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and Quran.

Five kings of Midian slain by Israel (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)
Above: Shuaib Caves in Al-Bada'a, region of Tabuk in northwestern Saudi Arabia

Below: Map
Haql on the coast of the Gulf of Aqaba between the Syrian region and Arabian and Sinai Peninsulas, with the Midian Mountains in the background
1908 image of a mountain associated with Muhammad and Lawrence of Arabia, {{convert|40|mile|km|abbr=on}} from Tabuk

According to Karel van der Toorn, "By the 14th century BC, before the cult of Yahweh had reached Israel, groups of Edomites and Midianites worshipped Yahweh as their god;" this conclusion is based on identification between Midianites and the Shasu.