A report on Yanaon

Maximum extent of French influence (1741–1754)
Colonial Yanaon
Regional Administrator Office, Yanam
Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Yanam Bridge
French Commissaire and Madimchetty, Mayor of Yanam in 1940s
An old photo of signature of the Treaty of Cession of French Establishments of India dated 28 May 1956. Plenipotentiary Signatories: On behalf of Republic of India, treaty was signed by the Indian Minister for External Affairs, Shri Jawaharlal Nehru (seated in the centre) and On behalf of French Republic, signed by the French Ambassador in India, H. E. Monsieur Stanislas Ostroróg (seated second from the left). Then Chief Commissioner of Pondicherry, Hon'ble Kewal Singh can be seen standing second from the right.

One of the five principal settlements of French India between 1731 and 1954.

- Yanaon

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French India

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French colony comprising five geographically separated enclaves on the Indian Subcontinent that had initially been factories of the French East India Company.

French colony comprising five geographically separated enclaves on the Indian Subcontinent that had initially been factories of the French East India Company.

French India at its peak between 1741-1754
India at the height of French Influence (1751)
A portrait of Ananda Ranga Pillai
Colonial Yanaon
View of Pondicherry in the late 18th century
French factory (trading post) at Patna on the Ganges
Governor's Garden at Pondicherry, 18th century
View of the Palace of the Governor of Pondicherry in 1850
Quai Dupleix at Strand Road Chandernagor
Chandernagor Government House and Convent
Pro-merger movement of French Settlements in India, 1954
Dupleix meeting the Soudhabar of the Deccan, Murzapha Jung
Suffren meeting with ally Hyder Ali in 1782, J. B. Morret engraving, 1789
French India postage stamps
Chandernagor's Government House c. 1850

During this period, the French East India Company peacefully acquired Yanam (about 840 km north-east of Pondichéry on Andhra Coast) in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast in 1725 and Karaikal (about 150 km south of Pondichéry) in 1739.

Puducherry (union territory)

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Union territory of India, consisting of four small geographically unconnected districts.

Union territory of India, consisting of four small geographically unconnected districts.

Map showing the districts of Puducherry
Puducherry Assembly seats
Puducherry railway station
Yanam Draksharamam Road, Puducherry
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
Puducherry Legislative Assembly
Puducherry Coast view
Mahe riverside
A camel on the beach in Puducherry, India
Karaikal church
Immaculate Conception Cathedral
A bird's eye view of Yanam
Downtown Karaikal
Karaikal Periyapalli
Karaikal Beach

Together with Chandernagor (already French since 1673), Mahé (since 1721), Yanam (Yanaon) (since 1731), Karaikal (Karikal) (since 1739) and Masulipatam (1760), it formed the French colony of French India, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was repeatedly interrupted by British occupations.

Yanam

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Town located in the Yanam district in Puducherry.

Town located in the Yanam district in Puducherry.

Colonial Yanaon
French India
Venkanna Babu Ratham, Yanam
Ferry Road, Yanam
Rajiv Gandhi Bus station complex at Yanam
Draksharamam Road
Children's Park
Sri Potti Sreeramulu Yanam Bridge
Rajiv Gandhi Beach
French Administrator Albert Vollerin, his family and Maire Madimchetty in the 1950s
Organigramme of Yanam Municipality
Map of Yanam Constituency
Ratham, Yanam
Venkanna Babu Temple, Yanam
Mosque, Yanam
Church, Yanam
Statue of Jesus at Yanam

Pondicherry and the settlements of Karikal, Mahé and Yanaon became a Union Territory with effect from 7 January 1963 by the 14th amendment to the Indian Constitution, which was notified in The Gazette of India on 29 December 1962.

Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau

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The Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785.

The Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785.

The Yanam region was presented to the Marquis de Bussy, the French General by Vizianagaram King Pusapati Peda Vijaya Rama Raju (1670–1756) as a token of gratitude for the help rendered by him in the fight against the rulers of Bobbili.

Karaikal

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Town of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry.

Town of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry.

Colonial Karikal (1931)
Tree stumps and debris remain on Karaikal beach several years after the 2004 tsunami
The Arasalaru river
Our Lady of Angels Church, Karaikal
Beach Road, Karaikal
Karaikal Ammaiyar Temple
Thirunallar Saneeswaran Temple
Karaikal Grand Mosque
Ganduri Festival
Theppa Kulam
Young pupils of the Karaikal School (Archival photograph 1905)

Karaikal became a French Colony in 1674 and held control, with occasional interruption from the British and Dutch, until 1954 (de jure in 1956), when it was incorporated into the Republic of India, along with Chandernagore, Mahé, Yanaon, and Pondichéry.

Salabat Jung

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The 3rd son of Nizam-ul-Mulk.

The 3rd son of Nizam-ul-Mulk.

A late 18th century, Bidriware Hookah base at Louvre, provides an insight into the alliance between Salabat Jung and De Bussy.

In March 1751, Salabat Jung gave the French the villages of Nizampatnam and Alamanava in the Krishna district, Kondavid, Narsapur in the Godavary district, together with Yanaon and Mahfuzbandar.

South India

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South India, also known as Dakshina Bharata or Peninsular India, consists of the southern part of India encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana, as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, comprising 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2) and 20% of India's population.

South India, also known as Dakshina Bharata or Peninsular India, consists of the southern part of India encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana, as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, comprising 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2) and 20% of India's population.

Zonal Councils of India
South India
Ancient Silk Road map. The Spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).
The Chola Empire during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030
Map of South India (1953–1956) before the States Reorganisation Act of 1956
Satellite image of South India
The peak of Anamudi (2695 m above sea level) is the highest point of elevation in South India
Birds view of Krishna river Back water at Srisailam dam
South India also has the largest elephant population.
Map showing highway distribution with population density
The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad
Aircraft parked at the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport
A Vishakhapatnam harbour view
A terminal at the Chennai Port
Major crop areas
Technopark, Trivandrum
The growth of information technology hubs in the region have spurred economic growth. Pictured is Tidel Park in Chennai
At 168.91 m height, the Idukki Dam is one of the highest arch dams in Asia.
Population Pyramid in South India
Dravidian language tree
The weave of Calico sample from a shopping bag shown against a centimetre scale.
A traditional meal served on a banana leaf
A Thalassery cuisine which makes use of Malabar spices
The large gopuram is a hallmark of Dravidian architecture.

The Union territory of Puducherry was created in 1954, comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichérry, Karaikal, Yanam, and Mahé.

Dadala Raphael Ramanayya

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Dadala Raphael Ramanayya (30 June 1908 – 5 May 1991) was an Indian nationalist leader who was instrumental in the merger of the French territory of Yanam into the Republic of India.

Organigramme of Yanam Municipality

Yanam Municipality

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Created by a French Metropolitan Decree dated 12 March 1880.

Created by a French Metropolitan Decree dated 12 March 1880.

Organigramme of Yanam Municipality
French Commissaire and Madimchetty Satianandam, Mayor of Yanam in the 1940s in Madimchetty's house

Yanaon municipality had 12 seats (Sièges).

Samatam Kistaya

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Monsieur Samatam Krishnayya (Samatam Kistaya) (Yanam c. 1875 – 13 June 1954) was a poet, historian and ayurvedic doctor.