Yaqui language

YaquiyaqYaqui or Yoreme languageYoeme or Yaqui LanguageYoreme
Yaqui (or Hiaki), locally known as Yoeme or Yoem Noki, is a Native American language of the Uto-Aztecan family.wikipedia
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Yaqui

YaquisYaqui IndiansYaqui people
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States.
This community has a population (estimated in 2006) of about 4,000; most of the middle-aged population of New Pascua speaks English, Spanish, and a moderate amount of Yaqui.

Uto-Aztecan languages

Uto-AztecanUto-Aztecan languageUto-Aztecan language family
Yaqui (or Hiaki), locally known as Yoeme or Yoem Noki, is a Native American language of the Uto-Aztecan family.
The Southern languages are divided into the Tepiman languages (including O'odham and Tepehuán), the Tarahumaran languages (including Raramuri and Guarijio), the Cahitan languages (including Yaqui and Mayo), the Coracholan languages (including Cora and Huichol), and the Nahuan languages.

Cahitan languages

CahitanCáhitaCahita
The Cahitan languages is a branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family that comprises the Yaqui and the Mayo languages, both of Northern Mexico.

Jean Bassett Johnson

Jean Basset JohnsonJohnson, Jean Bassett
In 1939-1940, under the direction of Morris Swadesh, Johnson conducted a study of the Yaqui language, published posthumously.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Yaqui (or Hiaki), locally known as Yoeme or Yoem Noki, is a Native American language of the Uto-Aztecan family.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States. There are also several orthographic systems used in Mexico differing slightly, mainly in using Spanish values for several consonants and Spanish spelling rules: "rohikte" would be written "rojicte".

Administrative divisions of Mexico

StateMexican stateMexican States
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States.

Sonora

Sonora, MexicoSonoranSonora State
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States.

Arizona

AZState of ArizonaArizona, U.S.
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
It is spoken by about 20,000 Yaqui people, in the Mexican state of Sonora and across the border in Arizona in the United States.

Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
The remarks below use the orthography used by the Pascua Yaqui Tribe in the United States.

Pascua Yaqui Tribe

Pascua YaquiCasino del SolPascua Pueblo Yaqui Reservation
The remarks below use the orthography used by the Pascua Yaqui Tribe in the United States.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
There are also several orthographic systems used in Mexico differing slightly, mainly in using Spanish values for several consonants and Spanish spelling rules: "rohikte" would be written "rojicte". "A" is pronounced similarly to that in (American English) "father" or in (Spanish) "gato" (International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ). Also, "d", "f", and "g" are present only in English and Spanish loanwords and are substituted with the native sounds "t"/"r"/"l", "p", and "w"/"k", respectively.

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
"A" is pronounced similarly to that in (American English) "father" or in (Spanish) "gato" (International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ).

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
"A" is pronounced similarly to that in (American English) "father" or in (Spanish) "gato" (International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ).

Vowel length

shortlong vowellong
Vowels may be either short or long in duration.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Long vowels may change tone, but that is not represented in the written language.

Glottal stop

ʔGlottalglottal stops
The following consonantal sounds are present in Yaqui: b, ch, (d), (f), (g), h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, and one or two glottal stops (IPA ), represented by an apostrophe.

Apostrophe

apostrophespossessive apostrophe
The following consonantal sounds are present in Yaqui: b, ch, (d), (f), (g), h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, and one or two glottal stops (IPA ), represented by an apostrophe.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Except for the glottal stops, most of them are pronounced nearly the same as they are in English, but "p", "t", and "k" are not aspirated. Also, "d", "f", and "g" are present only in English and Spanish loanwords and are substituted with the native sounds "t"/"r"/"l", "p", and "w"/"k", respectively.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
Except for the glottal stops, most of them are pronounced nearly the same as they are in English, but "p", "t", and "k" are not aspirated.

Loanword

loanwordsloan wordborrowed
Also, "d", "f", and "g" are present only in English and Spanish loanwords and are substituted with the native sounds "t"/"r"/"l", "p", and "w"/"k", respectively.

Mexican Spanish

SpanishMexicanMexico
The use of "g" in place of "w" is considered by Yaqui speakers as an influence from Mexican Spanish and not standard Yaqui usage, even in Mexico.

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
That is largely because the phoneme /w/ is present in northern Mexican Spanish not as an independent consonantal phoneme but as a variant of the vowel /u/ or as an adjunct to /g/ and /k/.

Sound symbolism

phonesthesiasound symbolphonaesthesia
Sound symbolism is present in Yaqui.