A report on Yat

Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.
Bulgarian "yat border".
Pre-revolution typewriter with Yat on the bottom row, between Ч and С.
Cover of 1880 edition of Turgenev's Fathers and Sons, with yat in the title; in modern orthography, дѣти is spelled дети.
In 1914, Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić's map showed the contemporary Serbian point of view where the Yat border separated Serbian from Bulgarian.

Thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet.

- Yat
Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.

16 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

Bulgarian language

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South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Cyrillic
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

The alphabet of Marin Drinov was used until the orthographic reform of 1945, when the letters yat (uppercase Ѣ, lowercase ѣ) and yus (uppercase Ѫ, lowercase ѫ) were removed from its alphabet, reducing the number of letters to 30.

Classification of Macedonian within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family

Macedonian language

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Macedonian (македонски јазик, translit.

Macedonian (македонски јазик, translit.

Classification of Macedonian within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family
Krste Petkov Misirkov (pictured) was the first to outline the distinctiveness of the Macedonian language in his book Za makedonckite raboti (On the Macedonian Matters), published in 1903.
Macedonian police car, with the Macedonian word Полиција (Policija), for "police".

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.

Balto-Slavic languages.

South Slavic languages

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The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.

The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.

Balto-Slavic languages.
Areas where Eastern South Slavic dialects are spoken:

The Chakavian reflex of proto-Slavic yat is i or sometimes e (rarely as (i)je), or mixed (Ekavian–Ikavian).

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.

Eastern South Slavic

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[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.
Front cover of the first grammar book of the modern Bulgarian language published by Neofit Rilski in 1835. Rilski was born in Bansko, eastern most Ottoman Macedonia, a town lying exactly on the Yat-border. He tried to unify then Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects.
The first complete edition of the Bible in modern Bulgarian, printed in Istanbul 1871. The decision to publish the Bible in the Eastern dialects was the historical factor based on which the Modern Bulgarian language departed from its Western and the Macedonian dialect to adopt the Eastern dialect. Behind this translation was the intellectual Petko Slaveykov from Tryavna, a town of the central Pre-Balkan.
Front cover of On the Macedonian Matters published in 1903 by Krste Misirkov, in which he laid down the principles of modern Macedonian. Misirkov was from the village of Postol in Ottoman Central Macedonia.
Decision about the proclamation of the Macedonian as an official language on 2 August 1944 by ASNOM.
Decision about the Macedonian Alphabet 1 May 1945. Note it is written on Bulgarian typewriter using Й and there are hand-written Ѕ, Ј and Џ, and diacritics added to create Ѓ and Ќ. The rejection of the Ъ, together with the adoption of Ј, Џ, Љ and Њ, led some authors to consider this process led by Blaze Koneski to be part of conducted "serbianization".

Jouko Lindstedt has assumed that the dividing line between Macedonian and Bulgarian may be in fact the Yat border, which goes through the modern region of Macedonia along the Velingrad – Petrich – Thessaloniki line.

Old Church Slavonic

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The first Slavic literary language.

The first Slavic literary language.

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

The pronunciation of yat (ѣ/ě) differed by area. In Bulgaria it was a relatively open vowel, commonly reconstructed as, but further north its pronunciation was more closed and it eventually became a diphthong (e.g. in modern standard Bosnian, Croatian and Montenegrin, or modern standard Serbian spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in Czech — the source of the grapheme ě) or even in many areas (e.g. in Chakavian Croatian, Shtokavian Ikavian Croatian and Bosnian dialects or Ukrainian) or (modern standard Serbian spoken in Serbia).

Area where Shtokavian standard languages are spoken by the majority or plurality of inhabitants (in 2005)

Shtokavian

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Prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin standards.

Prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin standards.

Area where Shtokavian standard languages are spoken by the majority or plurality of inhabitants (in 2005)
Distribution of Shtokavian subdialects before 20th century
Serbo-Croatian dialects prior to the 16th-century migrations, distinguishing Western and Eastern Shtokavian
Map of Shtokavian dialects
Present-day spread of the three yat pronunciations in Serbo-Croatian:
Ijekavian
Ekavian
Ikavian

The primary subdivisions of Shtokavian are based on two principles: one is whether the subdialect is Old-Shtokavian or Neo-Shtokavian, and different accents according to the way the old Slavic phoneme jat has changed.

Hval's Codex, 1404

Serbo-Croatian

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South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

Hval's Codex, 1404
Đuro Daničić, Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika (Croatian or Serbian Dictionary), 1882
Gramatika bosanskoga jezika (Grammar of the Bosnian Language), 1890
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Tomislav Maretić's 1899 Grammar of Croatian or Serbian.
A "trilingual" warning sign in Latin and Cyrillic script on the pack of Drina cigarettes: all three inscriptions are identical.
Ethno-political variants of Serbo-Croatian as of 2006.
Humac tablet from the 10th century
Temnić inscription from the 11th century
Plomin tablet from the 11th century
Valun tablet from the 11th century
Inscription of Župa Dubrovačka from the 11th century
Baška tablet, Island Krk c. 1100
Charter of Ban Kulin from the 12th century
Miroslav Gospel, 1186
The Vinodol Codex, 1288
Dušan's Code, 1349
Missal of duke Novak, 1368
Vatican Croatian Prayer Book c. 1400
Hrvoje's Missal, 1404
Istrian Demarcation, 1526 copy

The modern reflexes of the long Common Slavic vowel jat, usually transcribed *ě, vary by location as /i/, /e/, and /ije/ or /je/.

Cyrillic little yus (left) and big yus (right); normal forms (above) and iotified (below)

Yus

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Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.

Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.

Cyrillic little yus (left) and big yus (right); normal forms (above) and iotified (below)
Handwritten little yus
A beard tax token from 1705 containing Ѧ

Ѣ ѣ : Cyrillic letter Yat

Chakavian dialect in Istria, by D. Brozović
Northern Chakavian
Buzet dialect
Central Chakavian
Southern Chakavian
Southwestern Istrian

Chakavian

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South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats along the Adriatic coast, in the historical regions of Dalmatia, Istria, Croatian Littoral and parts of coastal and southern Central Croatia (now collectively referred to as Adriatic Croatia).

South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats along the Adriatic coast, in the historical regions of Dalmatia, Istria, Croatian Littoral and parts of coastal and southern Central Croatia (now collectively referred to as Adriatic Croatia).

Chakavian dialect in Istria, by D. Brozović
Northern Chakavian
Buzet dialect
Central Chakavian
Southern Chakavian
Southwestern Istrian

According to the reflex of the Common Slavic phoneme yat */ě/, there are four varieties:

Peter I made the final choices of letter-forms by crossing out the undesirable ones in a set of charts

Reforms of Russian orthography

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The Russian orthography has been reformed officially and unofficially by changing the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language.

The Russian orthography has been reformed officially and unofficially by changing the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language.

Peter I made the final choices of letter-forms by crossing out the undesirable ones in a set of charts
Civil Russian font from middle 18th and beginning of 19th centuries
The Old Cyrillic letter 'yat'
An old writing machine with the 'banned letters' removed
Early Soviet documents frequently conflated pre- and post-Revolution language
White Army anti-Bolshevik poster encouraging people to enlist as volunteers

Russian orthography was made simpler and easier by unifying several adjectival and pronominal inflections, conflating the letter ѣ (Yat) with е, ѳ with ф, and і (depending on the context of Moscovian pronunciation) and ѵ with и.