A report on Ye Jianying

Chinese Communist revolutionary leader and politician, one of the founding Ten Marshals of the People's Republic of China.

- Ye Jianying

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Zhou in 1972

Zhou Enlai

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The first Premier of the People's Republic of China serving from 1 October 1949 until his death on 8 January 1976.

The first Premier of the People's Republic of China serving from 1 October 1949 until his death on 8 January 1976.

Zhou in 1972
Zhou Enlai (1912)
Zhou Enlai as a student in Nankai Middle School
A young Zhou Enlai (1919)
Zhou during his time in France (1920s)
Zhou Enlai as the director of the Political Department at Whampoa Military Academy (1924)
Chiang Kai-shek (center) and Zhou Enlai (left) with cadets at Whampoa Military Academy (1924)
Zhou Enlai (1927)
Zhou Enlai (1930s)
Zhou (far left) with Mao Zedong (center-left) in Yan'an (1935)
Zhou with Communist general Ye Jianying (left) and Kuomintang official Zhang Zhong (center) in Xi'an 1937, illustrating the alliance between the two parties which was the outcome of the Xi'an Incident
Zhou (left) with his wife Deng Yingchao (center) and Sun Weishi
Zhou Enlai and Sun Weishi in Moscow, 1939.
The Marshall Mission (1946), left to right: Zhang Qun, George C. Marshall, Zhou Enlai
A portrait of Zhou Enlai
Zhou with Kim Il-sung at the signing of the Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty in 1961
Zhou Enlai and Sanusi Hardjadinata, the chairman of the Bandung Conference.
Zhou and his wife Deng at the Badaling section of the Great Wall of China (1955)
Zhou, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Mao Zedong.
Zhou shakes hands with President Richard Nixon upon Nixon's arrival in China in February 1972.
Zhou at the outset of the Cultural Revolution (with Lin Liheng, daughter of Lin Biao)
Statue of Zhou and Deng in the Memorial to Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao in Tianjin.
Zhou with his niece Zhou Bingde
A bronze statue of Zhou in Nanjing, wearing a Western suit (something he never wore after his youth)

Zhou was labelled, along with the generals Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Ye Jianying, and Nie Rongzhen, as an "empiricist" because he had a history of cooperating with the Comintern and with Mao's enemy, Wang Ming.

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."

Cultural Revolution

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Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."
People in the countryside working at night to produce steel during the Great Leap Forward
The purge of General Luo Ruiqing solidified the Army's loyalty to Mao.
Mao waved to the "revolutionary masses" on the riverside before his "swim across the Yangtze"
A struggle session of Wang Guangmei, the wife of Liu Shaoqi.
Mao Zedong and Lin Biao surrounded by rallying Red Guards in Beijing. Source: China Pictorial
Tiananmen Square on September 15, 1966, the occasion of Chairman Mao's third of eight mass rallies with Red Guards in 1966. Source: China Pictorial
The remains of Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.
The Cemetery of Confucius was attacked by Red Guards in November 1966.
Anti-Liu Shaoqi rally
Propaganda oil painting of Mao during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Marshal Lin Biao was constitutionally confirmed as Mao's successor in 1969.
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book, Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.
Jiang Qing (left), who was the wife of Mao Zedong and a member of the Gang of Four, received the Red Guards in Beijing with Premier Zhou Enlai (center) and Kang Sheng. They were all holding the Little Red Book (Quotations from Mao) in their hands.
Jiang Qing
Deng Xiaoping became the paramount leader of China in 1978. He started "Boluan Fanzheng" that brought the country back to order, and initiated China's historic Reforms and Opening up.
A struggle session of Xi Zhongxun, the father of Xi Jinping (September 1967). Xi Zhongxun was labelled as an "anti-Party element". However, since late 2012, Xi Jinping and his allies have attempted to play down the disaster of the Cultural Revolution and reversed many reforms since the Boluan Fanzheng period, sparking concerns of a new Cultural Revolution.
Quotations of Mao Zedong on a street wall of Wuxuan County, one of the centers of Guangxi massacre and cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution Cemetery in Chongqing, China. At least 1,700 people were killed during the violent faction clash, with 400 to 500 of them buried in this cemetery.
The Tibetan Panchen Lama during a struggle session.
Struggle session of Sampho Tsewang Rigzin and his wife during the Cultural Revolution.
A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. Andingmen Inner Street became "Great Leap Forward Road", Taijichang Street became the "Road for Eternal Revolution", Dongjiaominxiang was renamed "Anti-Imperialist Road", Beihai Park was renamed "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park" and Jingshan Park became "Red Guard Park." Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.
Yao Tongbin, one of China's foremost missile scientists, was beaten to death by a mob in Beijing during the Cultural Revolution (1968). This caused Zhou Enlai to order special protection for key technical experts.
Remnants of a banner containing slogans from the Cultural Revolution in Anhui.
The ballet The Red Detachment of Women, one of the Model Dramas promoted during the Cultural Revolution.
Posters from the Cultural Revolution period
Buddhist statues defaced during the Cultural Revolution.
The central section of this wall shows the faint remnant marks of a propaganda slogan that was added during the Cultural Revolution, but has since been removed. The slogan read "Boundless faith that in Chairman Mao."

In February, prominent generals Ye Jianying and Chen Yi, as well as Vice-Premier Tan Zhenlin, vocally asserted their opposition to the more extreme aspects of the movement, with some party elders insinuating that the CRG's real motives were to remove the revolutionary old guard.

Hua Guofeng during a visit to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, 1979

Hua Guofeng

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Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and Premier of the People's Republic of China.

Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and Premier of the People's Republic of China.

Hua Guofeng during a visit to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, 1979
Hua Guofeng in 1935
Hua Guofeng in 1941
In July 1970, Hua Guofeng participated in the agriculture of the Dongtundu Subdistrict in the suburbs of Changsha.
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai in which is displayed portraits of then-Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Hua Guofeng with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi during a state visit in Iran, 1978
Hua Guofeng at Brijuni, SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia, 1978.
Tomb of Hua Guofeng at Jiaocheng County

At the time, the highest power organ of the country, the Politburo Standing Committee, consisted of Hua, Ye Jianying, Zhang Chunqiao, and Wang Hongwen; Ye was in semi-retirement, and Zhang and Wang were part of the Gang of Four.

"Decisively Throw Out the Wang-Zhang-Jiang-Yao Anti-Party Clique!"

Gang of Four

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Maoist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

Maoist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

"Decisively Throw Out the Wang-Zhang-Jiang-Yao Anti-Party Clique!"
The Gang of Four at their trial in 1981

Near the end of Mao's life, a power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying.

Jiang on 19 October 1976

Jiang Qing

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Chinese communist revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).

Chinese communist revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).

Jiang on 19 October 1976
Jiang Qing on the cover of a film magazine
Jiang in a 1935 film poster
Mao and Jiang writing together in Yan'an, 1938
Li Na, Jiang and Mao in Yan'an in 1943
Mao and Jiang in 1946
Jiang during the Cultural Revolution
Poster showing Jiang promoting the fine arts during the Cultural Revolution while holding Mao's Little Red Book. The slogan reads: "The invincible thoughts of Mao Zedong illuminate the stages of revolutionary art!"
Jiang at her trial in 1980

Ye Jianying, a renowned general, met in private with Hua Guofeng and Wang Dongxing, commander of a secret service-like organization called the 8341 Special Regiment.

Fourth Army Commander Ye Ting

Ye Ting

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Chinese military leader who played a key role in the Northern Expedition to reunify China after the 1911 Revolution.

Chinese military leader who played a key role in the Northern Expedition to reunify China after the 1911 Revolution.

Fourth Army Commander Ye Ting

On August 1, 1927, with Chen Yi, Zhou Enlai, He Long, Zhu De, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Liu Bocheng and Guo Moruo, he participated in the failed Nanchang Uprising, when the People's Liberation Army was founded.

The location of Nanchang uprising.

Nanchang uprising

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The first major Nationalist Party of China–Chinese Communist Party engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Chinese Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang.

The first major Nationalist Party of China–Chinese Communist Party engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Chinese Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang.

The location of Nanchang uprising.
Zhou Enlai
Location of Nanchang in China

On the morning of 1 August 1927, at exactly 2:00 a.m., Zhou Enlai, He Long, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Ting, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Zhu De, Chen Yi and Liu Bocheng led their troops and attacked the city of Nanchang from different directions.

Republic of China Military Academy

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Service academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.

Service academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the NRA, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the KMT and China.
Sun Yat-sen [middle behind the table] and Chiang Kai-shek [on stage in uniform] at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924.
Flag of the ROCMA
Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (now as the Republic of China Army
Zhou Enlai as Director of the political department, Whampoa Military Academy.
Alumni record of the first group students of Republic of China Military Academy.
Whampoa Military Academy students training
Modern picture of the former Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou

He Yingqin and Ye Jianying were once military instructors.

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.

Long March

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Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists in Jiangxi in 1934.
Map drawn by the Red Army Command before the Battle of Xiangjiang
The Luding Bridge
Tiger Leaping Gorge in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif of western Yunnan province
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors

Other survivors of the March also went on to become prominent party leaders well into the 1990s, including Zhu De, Lin Biao, Liu Shaoqi, Dong Biwu, Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian, Yang Shangkun, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping.

Communist casualties

Guangzhou Uprising

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Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Communist casualties
Communist casualties

The uprising occurred despite the strong objections of communist military commanders such as Ye Ting, Ye Jianying and Xu Xiangqian, as the communists were badly armed - just 2,000 of the insurgents had rifles.