Yellow Emperor

HuangdiHuang DiXuanyuanYellow DeityGongsun XuanyuanHuang EmperorThe Yellow EmperorEmperor HuangEmperor HuangdiEmperor Huungti
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity (shen) in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity.wikipedia
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Chinese folk religion

ChineseChinese religionChinese traditional religion
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity (shen) in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity.
Some forms have received official understanding or recognition as a preservation of traditional Chinese culture, such as Mazuism and the Sanyi teaching in Fujian, Huangdi worship, and other forms of local worship, for example the Longwang, Pangu or Caishen worship.

Huangdi Sijing

Jing faFour TextsHuang-Lao Silk Manuscripts
A large number of texts – such as the Huangdi Neijing, a medical classic, and the Huangdi Sijing, a group of political treatises – were thus attributed to him. He was also credited with composing the Four Books of the Yellow Emperor (黃帝四經 Huángdì Sìjīng), the Yellow Emperor's Book of the Hidden Symbol (黃帝陰符經 Huángdì Yīnfújīng), and the "Yellow Emperor's Four Seasons Poem" included in the Tung Shing fortune-telling almanac.
Also known as the Huang-Lao boshu (lit. "Huang-Lao Silk Texts"), they are thought by modern scholars to reflect a lost branch of early syncretist Daoism, referred to as the "Huang–Lao school of thought" named after the legendary Huangdi (黃帝 the "Yellow Emperor") and Laozi (老子 "Master Lao").

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
Having waned in influence during most of the imperial period, in the early twentieth century Huangdi became a rallying figure for Han Chinese attempts to overthrow the rule of the Qing dynasty, which they considered foreign because its emperors were Manchu people.
Writers during the Western Zhou and Han dynasties derived ancestral lineages based on Shang dynasty-era legendary materials, while the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian places the reign of the Yellow Emperor, the legendary leader of Youxiong tribes, at the beginning of Chinese history.

Huangdi Neijing

Huang Di Nei JingThe Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal MedicineYellow Emperor's Inner Canon
A large number of texts – such as the Huangdi Neijing, a medical classic, and the Huangdi Sijing, a group of political treatises – were thus attributed to him. In old accounts the Yellow Emperor is identified as a deity of light (and his name is explained in the Shuowen jiezi to derive from guāng 光, "light") and thunder, and as one and the same with the "Thunder God" (雷神 Léishén), who in turn, as a later mythological character, is distinguished as the Yellow Emperor's foremost pupil, such as in the Huangdi Neijing. The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon (黃帝內經 Huángdì Nèijīng), which presents the doctrinal basis of traditional Chinese medicine, was named after him.
The work is composed of two texts—each of eighty-one chapters or treatises in a question-and-answer format between the mythical Yellow Emperor and six of his equally legendary ministers.

Sima Qian

Sima, QianSsu-ma Ch'ienGrand Historian
The Records of the Grand Historian, compiled by Sima Qian in the first century BCE, gives the Yellow Emperor's name as "Xuan Yuan". The Chinese historian Sima Qian – and much Chinese historiography following him – considered the Yellow Emperor to be a more historical figure than earlier legendary figures such as Fu Xi, Nüwa, and Shennong.
He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian, a general history of China in the Jizhuanti style covering more than two thousand years beginning from the rise of the legendary Yellow Emperor and the formation of the first Chinese polity to the reigning sovereign of Sima Qian's time, Emperor Wu of Han.

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

Five EmperorsThree SovereignsThree August Ones and Five Emperors
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity (shen) in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity.
According to a modern theory with roots in the late 19th century, the Yellow Emperor is supposedly the ancestor of the Huaxia people.

Shangdi

ShàngdìShang DiDi
Until 221 BCE when Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty coined the title huangdi – conventionally translated as "emperor" – to refer to himself, the character di 帝 did not refer to earthly rulers but to the highest god of the Shang dynasty (c.
The word itself is derived from Three "Huang" and Five "Di", including Yellow Emperor (Huangdi 黃帝), the mythological originator of the Chinese civilization and the ancestor of the Chinese race.

Xinzheng

HuayangNew ZhengXinzheng County
William Nienhauser, a modern translator of the Records of the Grand Historian, states that Huangdi was originally the head of the Youxiong clan, which lived near what is now Xinzheng in Henan.
The legendary Yellow Emperor was said to have been born in Xinzheng 5000 years ago.

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
Yang Kuan, a member of the same current of historiography, noted that only in the Warring States period had the Yellow Emperor started to be described as the first ruler of China.
It is similar in style to the Spring and Autumn Annals and covers the time from the Yellow Emperor to 299 BC.

Shuowen Jiezi

ShuowenExplaining Unitary Characters and Analyzing Compound CharactersShuo Wen Jie Zi
In old accounts the Yellow Emperor is identified as a deity of light (and his name is explained in the Shuowen jiezi to derive from guāng 光, "light") and thunder, and as one and the same with the "Thunder God" (雷神 Léishén), who in turn, as a later mythological character, is distinguished as the Yellow Emperor's foremost pupil, such as in the Huangdi Neijing.
The Scribe of the Yellow Emperor, Cangjie, observing the traces of the footprints and tracks of birds and wild animals, understood that their linear structures could be distinguished from one another by the differences between them.

Records of the Grand Historian

ShijiShi JiHistorical Records
The Records of the Grand Historian, compiled by Sima Qian in the first century BCE, gives the Yellow Emperor's name as "Xuan Yuan".
The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in the author's own time.

Yan Emperor

YandiFlame EmperorYan Di
Citing late Warring States and early Han versions of Huangdi's myth, he further argues that the figure of the Yellow Emperor originated in ancient rain-making rituals in which Huangdi represented the power of rain and clouds, whereas his mythical rival Chiyou (or the Yan Emperor) stood for fire and drought.
The succession of these flame emperors, from Shennong, the first Yan Emperor, until the time of the last Yan Emperor's defeat by the Yellow Emperor, may have been some 500 years.

Shaohao

ShǎohàoLingyun Sheng LunShao Hao
The oldest was Shao Hao or Xuan Xiao, who lived in Qingyang by the Yangtze River.
Shaohao is usually identified as a son of the Yellow Emperor.

Huang–Lao

Huang-LaoHuang-Lao DaoismHuanglao
Noting that many of the thinkers who were later identified as precursors of the Huang–Lao – "Huangdi and Laozi" – tradition came from the state of Qi, Robin D. S. Yates hypothesizes that Huang–Lao originated in that region.
Huang-Lao is a portmanteau word, with Huang referring to the Yellow Emperor and Lao to Laozi (老子 "Old Master").

Chinese culture

ChinesecultureCulture of China
Traditionally credited with numerous inventions and innovations – ranging from the Chinese calendar to an ancestor of football – the Yellow Emperor is now regarded as the initiator of Chinese culture, and said to be the ancestor of all Chinese.
From the beginning of its history, Han clothing (especially in elite circles) was inseparable from silk, supposedly discovered by the Yellow Emperor's consort, Leizu.

Shaodian

It recounts that Huangdi's father was Shaodian and his mother was Fu Pao .
Shaodian (born 2679 BC) was the father of Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor.

Leizu

LéizǔYellow Emperor's wife
His first wife Leizu of Xiling bore him two sons.
Leizu, also known as Xi Lingshi (, Wade–Giles Hsi Ling-shih), was a legendary Chinese empress and wife of the Yellow Emperor.

Shennong

Shen NongShénnóngThần Nông
The Chinese historian Sima Qian – and much Chinese historiography following him – considered the Yellow Emperor to be a more historical figure than earlier legendary figures such as Fu Xi, Nüwa, and Shennong.
Shennong is also thought to be the father of Huang Emperor who did carry on the secrets of medicine, immortality, and making gold.

Tung Shing

Chinese AlmanacChinese Almanac (Tung Shing)Huangli
He was also credited with composing the Four Books of the Yellow Emperor (黃帝四經 Huángdì Sìjīng), the Yellow Emperor's Book of the Hidden Symbol (黃帝陰符經 Huángdì Yīnfújīng), and the "Yellow Emperor's Four Seasons Poem" included in the Tung Shing fortune-telling almanac.
Tung Shing originated from Wong Lik (黃曆, the "Yellow Calendar"), which legend attributes to the Yellow Emperor.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Chinese medicineChinese traditional medicinemedicine
The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon (黃帝內經 Huángdì Nèijīng), which presents the doctrinal basis of traditional Chinese medicine, was named after him.
Written in the form of dialogues between the legendary Yellow Emperor and his ministers, it offers explanations on the relation between humans, their environment, and the cosmos, on the contents of the body, on human vitality and pathology, on the symptoms of illness, and on how to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in light of all these factors.

Sino-Babylonianism

Sino-Babylonian
Lacouperie's "Sino-Babylonianism" posited that Huangdi was a Mesopotamian tribal leader who had led a massive migration of his people into China around 2300 BCE and founded what later became Chinese civilization.
In the early 20th century, Sinocentric arguments, sometimes based on Hua–Yi distinction appealed to Chinese intellectuals who wanted to believe that the Yellow Emperor and other figures were historical, not myths.

Battle of Banquan

Banquanbattlebattle with Chi You
Zhang Binglin explained Huangdi's battle with Chi You as a conflict opposing the newly arrived civilized Mesopotamians to backward local tribes, a battle that transformed China into one of the most civilized places in the world.
It was fought by Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, and Yandi, the Flame Emperor.

Wufang Shangdi

Five Forms of the Highest DeityfāngWǔdì
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity (shen) in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity.
On the other hand there were the fangshi (方士 "masters of directions"), ritual masters who formulated what would have been called the "Huang–Lao" proto-Taoist religious movement, who presented themselves as the continuators of the traditions of the erstwhile kingdoms, and who emphasised the worship of local deities integrated into a theology in which the supreme God of Heaven was named Taiyi ("Great One"), and its human manifestation was the ancestral Yellow Emperor whom the emperors had to imitate.

Huangdi Yinfujing

Yinfu jingYinfujingYellow Emperor's Book of the Hidden Symbol
He was also credited with composing the Four Books of the Yellow Emperor (黃帝四經 Huángdì Sìjīng), the Yellow Emperor's Book of the Hidden Symbol (黃帝陰符經 Huángdì Yīnfújīng), and the "Yellow Emperor's Four Seasons Poem" included in the Tung Shing fortune-telling almanac.
The traditional Chinese belief, as well as the eponymous title, ascribed this classic to the legendary Chinese sovereign Huangdi "Yellow Emperor".

Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor

Martyrs' Shrinethe tomb of Yellow EmperorXuanyuan Temple
Later the same year, Lien Chan – a former Vice President of the Republic of China who is now Honorary Chairman of the Kuomintang – and his wife Lien Fang Yu paid homage at the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor in Huangling, Yan'an, in mainland China.
The Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor is the burial site of the legendary Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) of China.