Yoga

yogicyogiYogtantricHistory of YogaIndian yogicTibetan Saintvratyayoga classyoga instructor
Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.wikipedia
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Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics.

Yoga as exercise

yogamodern postural yogapostural yoga
The term "yoga" in the Western world often denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, yoga as exercise, consisting largely of the postures called asanas.
Yoga in this form has become familiar across the world, especially in America and Europe.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Yoga SutrasYoga SutraYogasutras
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, and gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Some key works of this era include the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, the Yoga-Yājñavalkya, the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra and the Visuddhimagga.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.

Yoga (philosophy)

YogaYoga philosophyphilosophy of yoga
One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.
Ancient, medieval and most modern literature often refers to the Yoga school of Hinduism simply as Yoga.

Śramaṇa

SramanaShramanaSramanic
The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India's ascetic and śramaṇa movements. According to Geoffrey Samuel, "Our best evidence to date suggests that [yogic] practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early sramana movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE."
The śramaṇa movements arose in the same circles of mendicants in ancient India that led to the development of yogic practices, as well as the popular concepts in all major Indian religions such as saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and death) and moksha (liberation from that cycle).

Yogi

yogisyogingreat yogi
Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi (may be applied to a man or a woman) or yogini (a woman).
A yogi is a practitioner of yoga, including a sannyasin or practitioner of meditation in Indian religions.

Yogini

Joginiyoginīfemale meditator in retreat
Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi (may be applied to a man or a woman) or yogini (a woman).
Yogini (sometimes spelled jogan) is a Sanskrit term for a female master practitioner of yoga, as well as a formal term of respect for female Hindu or Buddhist spiritual teachers in Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Greater Tibet.

Samadhi

samādhiconcentrationSamadhi (Buddhism)
In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi (concentration).
Samādhi (also called samāpatti), in Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools, is a state of meditative consciousness.

Upanishads

UpanishadUpanishadicUpanisads
The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads.
Gavin Flood dates many of the twenty Yoga Upanishads to be probably from the 100 BCE to 300 CE period.

Bhagavad Gita

GitaBhagavad-GitaBhagvad Gita
Systematic Yoga concepts begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE such as the Early Buddhist texts, the middle Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata.
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of Hindu ideas about dharma, theistic bhakti, and the yogic ideals of moksha.

Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
In various Shaiva and Shakta traditions of yoga and tantra, yogic techniques or yuktis are used to unite kundalini-shakti, the divine conscious force or energy, with Shiva, universal consciousness.
Shiva is also known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga, meditation and arts.

Pranayama

prāṇāyāmabreathing techniqueprānāyāma
For example, the practice of pranayama (consciously regulating breath) is mentioned in hymn 1.5.23 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (c.
Prāṇāyāma is the practice of breath control in yoga.

Kriyā

kriyakriyasSudarshan Kriya
The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras (2.1), designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.
Kriyā (Sanskrit क्रिया, "action, deed, effort") most commonly refers to a "completed action", technique or practice within a yoga discipline meant to achieve a specific result.

Geoffrey Samuel

According to Geoffrey Samuel, "Our best evidence to date suggests that [yogic] practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early sramana movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE."
He is known for his ethnographic studies of Tibetan and other Indic religions, investigating topics such as yoga, tantra, and the subtle body.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
But it has also incorporated the yogic tradition, as reflected in the use of jhana, which is rejected in other sutras as not resulting in the final result of liberation.

Yoke

ox-yokeyokes of oxenanimal yoke
The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke".
This sense is also the source of the word yoga, as linking with the divine.

Prana

pranicprāṇaapana
Chandogya Upanishad describes the five kinds of vital energies (prana).
In Hindu philosophy including yoga, Indian medicine and Indian martial arts, prana (, ; the Sanskrit word for breath, "life force", or "vital principle") permeates reality on all levels including inanimate objects.

Yoga Upanishads

Yoga Upanishad
In addition to the Yoga discussion in above Principal Upanishads, twenty Yoga Upanishads as well as related texts such as Yoga Vasistha, composed in 1st and 2nd millennium CE, discuss Yoga methods.
Yoga Upanishads are a group of minor Upanishads of Hinduism related to Yoga.

Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.
Samkhya and Yoga are mentioned together for first time in chapter 6.13 of the Shvetashvatra Upanishad, as samkhya-yoga-adhigamya (literally, "to be understood by proper reasoning and spiritual discipline").

Yogachara

YogacaraYogācāraConsciousness-only
The earliest known specific discussion of yoga in the Buddhist literature, as understood in modern context are from the later Buddhist Yogācāra and Theravada schools.
Yogācāra philosophy is primarily meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it also sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path (see five paths pañcamārga).

Patanjali

PatañjaliPathanjaliMaharishi Patanjali
These may reflect the ancient roots of "undisturbed calmness" and "mindfulness through balance" in later works of Hindu Patanjali and Buddhist Buddhaghosa respectively, states Charles Rockwell Lanman; as well as the principle of Aparigraha (non-possessiveness, non-craving, simple living) and asceticism discussed in later Hinduism and Jainism.
The greatest of these are the Yoga Sutras, a classical yoga text.

Nadi (yoga)

nadisnadisushumna
Concepts used later in many yoga traditions such as internal sound and veins (nadis) are also described in the Upanishad.
The nadis play a role in yoga, as many yogic practices, including shatkarmas, mudras and pranayama, are intended to open and unblock the nadis.

Sannyasa

sannyasisanyasisannyasin
The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India's ascetic and śramaṇa movements. These may reflect the ancient roots of "undisturbed calmness" and "mindfulness through balance" in later works of Hindu Patanjali and Buddhist Buddhaghosa respectively, states Charles Rockwell Lanman; as well as the principle of Aparigraha (non-possessiveness, non-craving, simple living) and asceticism discussed in later Hinduism and Jainism.
For the Bhakti (devotion) traditions, liberation consists of union with the Divine and release from Saṃsāra (rebirth in future life); for Yoga traditions, liberation is the experience of the highest Samādhi (deep awareness in this life); and for the Advaita tradition, liberation is jivanmukti – the awareness of the Supreme Reality (Brahman) and Self-realization in this life.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
It can be traced back to Plato, Aristotle and the Nyaya, Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, but it was most precisely formulated by René Descartes in the 17th century.

Yoga Yajnavalkya

Yoga-YajnavalkyaYoga-YājñavalkyaYogayajnavalkya Samhita
Some key works of this era include the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, the Yoga-Yājñavalkya, the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra and the Visuddhimagga.
The Yoga Yajnavalkya (योगयाज्ञवल्क्य, Yoga-Yājñavalkya) is a classical Hindu yoga text in the Sanskrit language.