Yoga (philosophy)

YogaYoga philosophyphilosophy of yogaspiritual and philosophical goalYoga schoola school of philosophyasmitadualistic Yoga schoolphilosophyyoga's philosophy
Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism.wikipedia
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Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
It is closely related to the Samkhya school of Hinduism. The other schools are Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it was influential on other schools of Indian philosophy.

Yoga

yogicyogiYog
Ancient, medieval and most modern literature often refers to the Yoga school of Hinduism simply as Yoga.
One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Yoga SutrasYoga SutraYogasutras
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism.
Hindu orthodox tradition holds the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism.
Of the historical division into six darsanas (philosophies), two schools, Vedanta and Yoga, are currently the most prominent.

Dualism (Indian philosophy)

dualismdualisticdualist
The metaphysics of Yoga is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school.
This mainly takes the form of either mind-matter dualism in Buddhist philosophy or consciousness-matter dualism in the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy.

Mīmāṃsā

MimamsaPurva MimamsaMimāṃsā
The other schools are Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.

Āstika and nāstika

AstikaĀstikaNastika
Other texts of the Yoga school expanded the list of values under Niyamas, to include behaviors such as Āstika (आस्तिक, belief in personal God, faith in Self, conviction that there is knowledge in Vedas/Upanishads), Dāna (दान, charity, sharing with others), Hrī (ह्री, remorse and acceptance of one's past/mistakes/ignorance, modesty) Mati (मति, think and reflect, reconcile conflicting ideas) and Vrata (व्रत, resolutions and vows, fast, pious observances).
These are the Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta schools of Hinduism, and they are classified as the āstika schools:

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
Those that consider Brahman and Atman as same are monist or pantheistic, and Advaita Vedanta, later Samkhya and Yoga schools illustrate this metaphysical premise.

Tapas (Indian religions)

tapastapasyatavam
In some ancient texts, Tapas has the sense of ascetic mortification in a sense similar to other Indian religions, while in the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga school of Hinduism, the term means self-training and virtuous living in a sense similar to Buddhism.

Brahma Sutras

Brahma SutraBrahmasutraVedanta Sutra
The Brahma Sutras by Badarayana dated to somewhere between the 5th century BCE and the 2nd century BCE, belonging to the Vedanta school of Hinduism, in chapter 2 assumes the existence of a text called Yoga Smriti.
The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2.1.3 and 4.2.21 that Yoga and Samkhya are similar.

Patanjali

PatañjaliPathanjaliMaharishi Patanjali
The five yamas listed by Patañjali in Yogasūtra 2.30 are:
Scholars consider the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali formulations as one of the foundations of classical Yoga philosophy of Hinduism.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
The epistemology of the Yoga school of Hinduism, like the Sāmkhya school, relies on three of six Pramanas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge.

Purusha

PurusaPuruṣaconsciousness
The universe is conceptualized as composed of two realities in the Samhkya-Yoga schools: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter).

Prakṛti

PrakritiPrakrtimatter
The universe is conceptualized as composed of two realities in the Samhkya-Yoga schools: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter).

Jiva

jīvajīvātmanjeeva
Jiva (a living being) is considered as a state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form, in various permutations and combinations of various elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.

Moksha

liberationmuktimoksa
The end of this bondage is called liberation, or moksha, by both the Yoga and Samkhya schools of Hinduism.

Yamas

YamaPatanjali's Yoga Sutraself-restrained
The ethical theory of the Yoga school is based on Yamas and Niyama, as well as elements of the Guṇa theory of Samkhya.

Guṇa

gunaGunascharacteristics
The ethical theory of the Yoga school is based on Yamas and Niyama, as well as elements of the Guṇa theory of Samkhya.

Advaita Vedanta

AdvaitaAdvaita VedāntaAdvaitha
Yoga shares several central ideas with the Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism, with the difference that Yoga philosophy is a form of experimental mysticism, while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.

Monism

monisticmonistMonad
Yoga shares several central ideas with the Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism, with the difference that Yoga philosophy is a form of experimental mysticism, while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.

Katha Upanishad

KathaKathopanishadKathaka Upanishad
Some of its earliest discussions are found in 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as the Katha Upanishad, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Maitri Upanishad.

Shvetashvatara Upanishad

Svetasvatara UpanishadShvetashvataraSvetasvatara
Some of its earliest discussions are found in 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as the Katha Upanishad, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Maitri Upanishad.

Maitrayaniya Upanishad

Maitri UpanishadMaitriMaitrāyaṇi Upanishad
Some of its earliest discussions are found in 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as the Katha Upanishad, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Maitri Upanishad.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
The root of "Yoga" is found in hymn 5.81.1 of the Rig Veda, a dedication to rising Sun-god in the morning (Savitri), interpreted as "yoke" or "yogically control".

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Brhadaranyaka UpanishadBrihadaranyakaBṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
Early references to practices that later became part of Yoga school of Hinduism, are made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the oldest Upanishad.