Yttrium

Y 90 YY-90YO bandsyttrium (Y)
Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39.wikipedia
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Lanthanide

lanthanideslanthanoidlanthanide series
It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". As expected by periodic trends, it is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandium, and less electronegative than the next member of period 5, zirconium; additionally, it is more electronegative to its successor in its group, lanthanum, surpassing in electronegativity to the later lanthanides due to the lanthanide contraction.
These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare earth elements.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is a soft, silver-metallic, lustrous and highly crystalline transition metal in group 3.

Group 3 element

group 33III
Yttrium is a soft, silver-metallic, lustrous and highly crystalline transition metal in group 3.
Scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) are always included, but the other two spaces are usually occupied by lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac), or by lutetium (Lu) and lawrencium (Lr); less frequently, it is considered the group should be expanded to 32 elements (with all the lanthanides and actinides included) or contracted to contain only scandium and yttrium.

Scandium

Scaluminium-scandium alloySc 2+
As expected by periodic trends, it is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandium, and less electronegative than the next member of period 5, zirconium; additionally, it is more electronegative to its successor in its group, lanthanum, surpassing in electronegativity to the later lanthanides due to the lanthanide contraction.
A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides.

Period 5 element

Period 555'''
As expected by periodic trends, it is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandium, and less electronegative than the next member of period 5, zirconium; additionally, it is more electronegative to its successor in its group, lanthanum, surpassing in electronegativity to the later lanthanides due to the lanthanide contraction.

Ytterby

Ytterby, Sweden
The name is historical and comes from the village of Ytterby, in Sweden: in 1787, the famous chemist Arrhenius found there a new mineral and named it ytterbite.
Ytterby is perhaps most famous for being the single richest source of elemental discoveries in the world; the chemical elements yttrium (Y), ytterbium (Yb), erbium (Er) and terbium (Tb) are all named after Ytterby.

Johan Gadolin

GadolinGadolin, JohanJ. Gadolin
Then, Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria.
Gadolin discovered a "new earth" containing the first rare-earth compound yttrium, which was later determined to be a chemical element.

Gadolinite

ytterbite
The name is historical and comes from the village of Ytterby, in Sweden: in 1787, the famous chemist Arrhenius found there a new mineral and named it ytterbite.
Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y) 2 FeBe 2 Si 2 O 10.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39.

Ytterbium

YbYb II
One of the few notable differences between the chemistry of yttrium and that of the lanthanides is that yttrium is almost exclusively trivalent, whereas about half the lanthanides can have valences other than three; nevertheless, only for four of the fifteen lanthanides are these other valences important in aqueous solution (Ce IV, Sm II, Eu II, and Yb II ).
He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium and erbium).

Zirconium

Zrzirconium monoxide 90 Zr
As expected by periodic trends, it is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandium, and less electronegative than the next member of period 5, zirconium; additionally, it is more electronegative to its successor in its group, lanthanum, surpassing in electronegativity to the later lanthanides due to the lanthanide contraction.
Of the elements within the d-block with known electronegativities, zirconium has the fifth lowest electronegativity after hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum, and actinium.

Lanthanum

La57La 3+
As expected by periodic trends, it is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandium, and less electronegative than the next member of period 5, zirconium; additionally, it is more electronegative to its successor in its group, lanthanum, surpassing in electronegativity to the later lanthanides due to the lanthanide contraction.
Lanthanum is often considered to be a group 3 element, along with its lighter congeners scandium and yttrium and its heavier congener, the radioactive actinium, although this classification is sometimes disputed.

Yttrium nitride

YN
Yttrium nitride (YN) is formed when the metal is heated to 1000 °C in nitrogen.
Yttrium nitride, YN, is a nitride of yttrium.

Rare-earth element

rare-earthrare earth elementsrare earths
It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element".
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

Yttrium(III) bromide

YBr 3 Yttrium bromide
With halogens, yttrium forms trihalides such as yttrium(III) fluoride, yttrium(III) chloride, and yttrium(III) bromide at temperatures above roughly 200 °C.
Yttrium(III) bromide (YBr 3 ) is an inorganic chemical compound.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39.
"Y" is also often used as a general chemical symbol, although it is also the symbol of yttrium.

Inorganic chemistry

inorganicinorganic chemistinorganic compounds
As a trivalent transition metal, yttrium forms various inorganic compounds, generally in the oxidation state of +3, by giving up all three of its valence electrons.
Due to their often similar reactivity, the elements in group 3 (Sc, Y, and La) and group 12 (Zn, Cd, and Hg) are also generally included, and the lanthanides and actinides are sometimes included as well.

Friedrich Wöhler

Friedrich WoehlerWöhlerF. Wöhler
Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler.
Wöhler was the first to isolate the elements yttrium, beryllium, and titanium, and to observe that "silicium" (silicon) can be obtained in crystals, and that some meteoric stones contain organic matter.

Yttrium(III) oxide

yttriayttrium oxideY 2 O 3
Then, Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y 2 O 3.

Carl Axel Arrhenius

Arrhenius
The name is historical and comes from the village of Ytterby, in Sweden: in 1787, the famous chemist Arrhenius found there a new mineral and named it ytterbite.
This permitted the discovery of four new elements by various chemists: yttrium, terbium, erbium, and ytterbium, and eventually the rest of the rare-earth metals, including scandium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and thulium.

Endohedral fullerene

endohedral fullerenesatoms or molecules encased in fullerenesendohedral fullerene molecules
Vaporization of the graphite intercalation compounds graphite–Y or graphite– leads to the formation of endohedral fullerenes such as Y@C 82.
The metals can be transition metals like scandium, yttrium as well as lanthanides like lanthanum and cerium.

Phosphor

phosphorsP39 phosphorP7 phosphor
The most important uses of yttrium are LEDs and phosphors, particularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube displays.
Red: Yttrium oxide-sulfide activated with europium is used as the red phosphor in color CRTs.

Strontium-90

90 Srstrontium 90Sr-90
Though 90 Y has a short half-life, it exists in secular equilibrium with its long-lived parent isotope, strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) with a half-life of 29 years.
90 Sr undergoes β − decay with a half-life of 28.79 years and a decay energy of 0.546 MeV distributed to an electron, an anti-neutrino, and the yttrium isotope 90 Y, which in turn undergoes β − decay with half-life of 64 hours and decay energy 2.28 MeV distributed to an electron, an anti-neutrino, and 90 Zr (zirconium), which is stable.

Organoyttrium chemistry

organoyttrium compound
Organoyttrium chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–yttrium bonds.
Organoyttrium chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon-yttrium bonds.

Dysprosium

Dy 6 Dy
It often also falls in the same range for reaction order, resembling terbium and dysprosium in its chemical reactivity.
In the high-yttrium version of these, dysprosium happens to be the most abundant of the heavy lanthanides, comprising up to 7–8% of the concentrate (as compared to about 65% for yttrium).