Yuan dynasty

YuanYuan ChinaYuan EmpireChinaYuan dynastiesMongolMongolsYuan periodYuan-eraGreat Yuan
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Middle Mongolian:, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.wikipedia
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Song dynasty

SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynasty
It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty.
It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

Northern Yuan dynasty

Northern YuanAdministrative divisions of Northern Yuan DynastyMongolia
Following that, the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule as the Northern Yuan dynasty.
It operated after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen-led Later Jin dynasty in 1635.

Mongolia

MongolRepublic of MongoliaMongolian
His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.
His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty.

Battle of Yamen

Yamen1279 invasion of Southern Chinalast stand
Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279 when the Southern Song dynasty was defeated in the Battle of Yamen.
The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya; ) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.

ʼPhags-pa script

Phags-pa scriptPhags-paPhagspa
Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language (i.e. Mongolian) and the 'Phags-pa script.
The ʼPhags-pa script is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.

Kublai Khan

KublaiKhubilai KhanKubilai Khan
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Middle Mongolian:, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

List of Yuan emperors

Emperor of the Yuan DynastyList of emperors of the Yuan dynastyemperor
The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu.
The following is a list of Emperors of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) in the eastern part of the Mongol Empire.

Division of the Mongol Empire

division of the empirefragmentation of the Mongol Empirealready fragmented
The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire.
This civil war, along with the Berke–Hulagu war and the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war, greatly weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the entirety of the Mongol Empire, and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.

Borjigin

House of BorjiginKhorchin BorjigitBorjigit
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Middle Mongolian:, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
In 1368, under Toghun Temür, the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China but members of the family continued to rule over Mongolia homeland into the 17th century, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty.

Chagatai Khanate

ChagataiChagatai MongolsChagataid
In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate.
The Chagatai Khanate recognized the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304, but became split into two parts in the mid-14th century: the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Moghulistan Khanate.

Khanate

KhaganatekhanatesGreat Khan
His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.
In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279.

Shangdu

XanaduKaipingShangtu
He adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu.
Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the capital of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty in China, before he decided to move his throne to the Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū, which he renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

Khanbaliq

DaduKhanbalikDaidu
Kublai readied the move of the Mongol capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in 1264, constructing a new city near the former Jurchen capital Zhongdu, now modern Beijing, in 1266.
Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.

Khagan

Great KhanQaghanKhan of the Bogd Khanate
In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate.
Since the division of the Mongol Empire, emperors of the Yuan dynasty held the title of Khagan and their successors in Mongolia continued to have the title.

Yuan dynasty coinage

copper cash coinscoinsding
During the beginning of the Yuan dynasty, the Mongols continued issuing coins; however, under Külüg Khan coins were completely replaced by paper money.
The Yuan dynasty was a Mongol khanate that ruled over China from 1271 to 1368, after the Mongols conquered the Western Xia, Western Liao, and Jin dynasties they allowed for the continuation of locally minted copper currency, as well as allowing for the continued use of previously created and older forms of currency (from previous Chinese dynasties), while they immediately abolished the Jin dynasty’s paper money as it suffered heavily from inflation due to the wars with the Mongols.

Shi Tianze

Shi Tianzhe
Two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima (劉黑馬, aka Liu Ni), and the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army.
Shi Tianze (1202 – 5 March 1275) was a general in the early period of the Yuan dynasty of Eastern Mongol Empire.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
It was the first non-Han Chinese dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368 when the Ming dynasty defeated the Yuan forces.
In 1279, the Mongols conquered all of China, becoming the first non-Han ethnic group to do so, and established the Yuan dynasty.

Tusi

Native Chieftain Systemnative chieftainChiefdom
The Tusi chieftains and local tribe leaders and kingdoms in Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan submitted to Yuan rule and were allowed to keep their titles.
They were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties and by the Lê and Nguyễn dynasties of Vietnam.

Külüg Khan

KhayishanEmperor WuzongKülüg Khan, Emperor Wuzong of Yuan
During the beginning of the Yuan dynasty, the Mongols continued issuing coins; however, under Külüg Khan coins were completely replaced by paper money.
Külüg Khan (Mongolian: Хөлөг хаан, Hülüg Khaan, Külüg qaγan), born Khayishan (also spelled Khayisan, Хайсан, meaning "wall" ), also known by the temple name Wuzong (Emperor Wuzong of Yuan, ) (August 4, 1281 – January 27, 1311), Prince of Huai-ning in 1304-7, was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.

Goryeo

Korea (Goryeo Kingdom)Goryeo DynastyKoryo
Kublai secured the northeast border in 1259 by installing the hostage prince Wonjong as the ruler of the Kingdom of Goryeo (Korea), making it a Mongol tributary state.
From that point on, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law nation" of the Mongol Yuan dynasty through royal intermarriage and blood ties.

Imperial examination

imperial examinationsjinshicivil service examinations
However, Kublai rejected plans to revive the Confucian imperial examinations and divided Yuan society into three, later four, classes with the Han occupying the lowest rank.
A brief interruption to the examinations occurred at the beginning of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in the 13th century, but was later brought back with regional quotas which favored the Mongols and disadvantaged Southern Chinese.

Middle Mongol language

Middle MongolianMiddle MongolMongolian
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Middle Mongolian:, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Middle Mongol survived in a number of scripts, namely notably Phagspa (decrees during the Yuan Dynasty), Arabic (dictionaries), Chinese, Mongolian script and a few western scripts.

Mongol invasions of Vietnam

Mongol invasionMongol invasionsfirst Mongol invasion of Vietnam
Kublai botched his campaigns against Annam, Champa, and Java, but won a Pyrrhic victory against Burma.
The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese Wars refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88.

Kaidu

QaiduKhaiduKhaidu Khaan
Ögedei's grandson Kaidu refused to submit to Kublai and threatened the western frontier of Kublai's domain.
He ruled part of modern-day Xinjiang and Central Asia during the 13th century, and actively opposed his cousin, Kublai Khan, who established the Yuan dynasty in China, until Kaidu's death in 1301.