Yuga Purana

Mitchener's translation of the Yuga Purana.
Relief depicting an Indo-Greek warrior, from Bharhut, c.100 BCE

Sanskrit text and the last chapter of a Jyotisha text Vriddhagargiya Samhita.

- Yuga Purana
Mitchener's translation of the Yuga Purana.

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Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.

Shunga Empire

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Personage.
Lotus.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Chandraketugarth.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

Several works, such as the Mahabharata and the Yuga Purana describe the conflict between the Shungas and the Indo-Greeks.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.

Indo-Scythians

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into northern and western regions of ancient India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into northern and western regions of ancient India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Head of a Saka warrior, as a defeated enemy of the Yuezhi, from Khalchayan, northern Bactria, 1st century BCE.
The treasure of the royal burial Tillya Tepe is attributed to 1st century BC Sakas in Bactria.
Detail of one of the Orlat plaques seemingly representing Scythian soldiers.
Map of Sakastan around 100 BC
Asia in 100 BC, showing the Sakas and their neighbors
Coin of Maues depicting Balarama, 1st century BC. British Museum.
A coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes
A toilet tray of the type found in the Early Saka layer at Sirkap
A bronze coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes. Obverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Humped Brahman bull (zebu) walking right, Whitehead symbol 15 (Z in square) above; Reverse: Kharosthi "jha" to right / Kharosthi legend, Lion or leopard standing right, Whitehead symbol 26 above; Reference: Whitehead 259; BMC p. 86, 141.
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes inside. British Museum.
The Mathura lion capital is an important Indo-Scythian monument dedicated to the Buddhist religion (British Museum).
Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Profile of the Indo-Scythian King Azes on one of his coins.
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (c. AD 175 to 197), a descendant of the Indo-Scythians
Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian king Maues (85–60 BC).
Azilises on horse, wearing a tunic
Scythian devotee, Butkara Stupa
Gandhara stone palette with Scythians playing music.
The Bajaur casket was dedicated by Indravarman, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Buddhist stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo-Scythian period were highly decorated structures with columns, flights of stairs, and decorative Acanthus leaf friezes. Butkara stupa, Swat, 1st century BC.
Possible Scythian devotee couple (extreme left and right, often described as "Scytho-Parthian"), around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
"Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana.
Coin of Azes, with king seated, holding a drawn sword and a whip.
"Scythian" soldier, Nagarjunakonda.
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One of the Buner reliefs showing Scythian soldiers dancing. Cleveland Museum of Art.
Indo-Scythians pushing along the Greek god Dionysos with Ariadne.<ref>Photographic reference here {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070310211016/http://kunst.zeit.de/uploads/pics/WK_09_06_L__we_400.jpg |date=10 March 2007 }}.</ref>
Hunting scene.
Hunting scene.
Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa, dated to 20 BC, during the reign of Azes II. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art.
Dancing Indo-Scythians (top) and hunting scene (bottom). Buddhist relief from Swat, Gandhara.
Butkara doorjamb, with Indo-Scythians dancing and reveling. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha<ref>Faccenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXII</ref>
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably 143 CE.<ref name = "PC">Problems of Chronology in Gandharan Art pp.35-51, 2017</ref> The two devotees on the right side of the pedestal are in Indo-Scythian suit (loose trousers, tunic, and hood).<ref>Greco-Buddhist Art of Gandhara p.491</ref>

The text of the Yuga Purana describes an invasion of Pataliputra by the Scythians sometimes during the 1st century BC, after seven great kings had ruled in succession in Saketa following the retreat of the Yavanas.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.

Indo-Greek Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

The only recorded primary account regarding this campaign was written in the Yuga Purana, however this text was written as a forthcoming prophecy of an impending conflict.

Coin of Emperor Salisuka, or later. Circa 207-194 BCE.

Shalishuka

Ruler of the Indian Maurya dynasty.

Ruler of the Indian Maurya dynasty.

Coin of Emperor Salisuka, or later. Circa 207-194 BCE.

While the Yuga Purana section of the Gargi Samhita mentions him as a quarrelsome, unrighteous ruler, he is also noted as being of "righteous words"

Kosal and other kingdoms of the late Vedic period.

Kosala

Ancient Indian kingdom with a rich culture, corresponding the area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh to Western Odisha.

Ancient Indian kingdom with a rich culture, corresponding the area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh to Western Odisha.

Kosal and other kingdoms of the late Vedic period.
Procession of Prasenajit of Kosala leaving Sravasti to meet the Buddha, Sanchi.
Kosal and other kingdoms of the late Vedic period.
Kosala coin, 400-300 BCE
Kosala Karshapana, 5th century BCE.
Coin of ruler Muladeva, minted in Ayodhya, Kosala. Obv: Muladevasa, elephant to left facing symbol. Rev: Wreath, above symbol, below snake.
Coin of ruler Aryamitra, issued in Ayodhya, Kosala. Obv: peacock to right facing tree. Rev: Name Ayyamitasa, humped bull to left facing pole.
thumb|Kashi coin, 400-300 BCE.

The Yuga Purana section of the Garga Samhita mentions about the Yavana (Indo-Greek) invasion and subsequent occupation of Saket during the reign of the last Maurya ruler Brihadratha.

Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BCE.

History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom

The History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom covers a period from the 2nd century BCE to the beginning of the 1st century CE in northern and northwestern India.

The History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom covers a period from the 2nd century BCE to the beginning of the 1st century CE in northern and northwestern India.

Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BCE.
The founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE), wearing the scalp of an elephant, symbol of his conquests in India.
The Hellenistic world view just before the Indo-Greek conquests. India appears fully formed, with the Ganges and Palibothra (Pataliputra) in the east. (19th-century reconstruction of the ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE). )
An Indo-Greek stone palette showing Poseidon with attendants. He wears a chiton tunic, a chlamys cape, and boots. 2nd–1st century BCE, Gandhara, Ancient Orient Museum.
Main archaeological artifacts from the Indo-Greek strata at ancient Taxila. Source: John Marshall "Taxila, Archaeological excavations".
Evolution of the Butkara stupa (Swat) during the Indo-Greek period.
Stupa decorated with acanthus leaves, Level III, Sirkap, 1st century BCE. Diameter: 2.5 meters.
Coin of Menander. Greek legend, BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROY lit. "Saviour King Menander".
Detail of Asia in the Ptolemy world map. The "Menander Mons" are in the center of the map, at the east of the Indian subcontinent, beyond the Ganges, right above the Malaysian Peninsula.
Coin of the Yaudheyas.
Coin of Philoxenus, unarmed, making a blessing gesture with the right hand.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratus.
Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II (r. c. 35–12 BCE).
Indo-Parthian king and attendants. Ancient Orient Museum.
A Yuezhi/ Kushan man in traditional costume with tunic and boots, 2nd century CE, Gandhara.
Demetrius I, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom (r. c. 205–171 BCE).

Written evidence of the initial Greek invasion survives in the Greek writings of Strabo and Justin, and in Sanskrit in the records of Patanjali, Kālidāsa, and in the Yuga Purana, among others.

Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.

Brihadratha Maurya

The last ruler of the Mauryan Empire.

The last ruler of the Mauryan Empire.

Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.

The hypothesized Yavana invasion of Pataliputra is based in the Yuga Purana. Written in a prophetic, the a scripture describes the campaign of King Dharmamita:

The fish avatara of Vishnu saves Manu, the progenitor of the existing human race, during the great deluge.

Hindu cosmology

Description of the universe and its states of matter, cycles within time, physical structure, and effects on living entities according to Hindu texts.

Description of the universe and its states of matter, cycles within time, physical structure, and effects on living entities according to Hindu texts.

The fish avatara of Vishnu saves Manu, the progenitor of the existing human race, during the great deluge.
An attempt to depict the creative activities of Prajapati; a steel engraving from the 1850s
Upper seven Lokas in Hindu Cosmology
Lower seven Lokas in Puranas

The earliest mentions of cosmic cycles in Sanskrit literature are found in the Yuga Purana (c.

The Dhanadeva-Ayodhya inscription, 1st century BCE.

Deva dynasty (Saketa)

Dynasty of kings who ruled in the area of the city of Ayodhya, Kosala, in India from the 2nd century BCE until the end of 1st century BCE.

Dynasty of kings who ruled in the area of the city of Ayodhya, Kosala, in India from the 2nd century BCE until the end of 1st century BCE.

The Dhanadeva-Ayodhya inscription, 1st century BCE.
Coin of ruler Muladeva, minted in Ayodhya, Kosala. Obv: Muladevasa, elephant to left facing symbol. Rev: Wreath, above symbol, below snake.

The Yuga Purana mentions Saketa as the residence of a governor, and describes it as being attacked by a combined force of Greeks, Mathuras, and Panchalas.

An Italian cameo bracelet representing the days of the week by their eponymous deities (mid-19th century, Walters Art Museum)

Week

Time unit equal to seven days.

Time unit equal to seven days.

An Italian cameo bracelet representing the days of the week by their eponymous deities (mid-19th century, Walters Art Museum)
Circular diagrams showing the division of the day and of the week, from a Carolingian ms. (Clm 14456 fol. 71r) of St. Emmeram Abbey. The week is divided into seven days, and each day into 24 hours, 96 puncta (quarter-hours), 240 minuta (tenths of an hour) and 960 momenta (40th parts of an hour).
Schematic comparison of the ordering of the classical planets (arranged in a circle) and the sequence of days in the week (forming a {7/3} heptagram within the circle).

Shashi (2000) mentions the Garga Samhita, which he places in the 1st century BC or AD, as a possible earlier reference to a seven-day week in India.