A report on Yukon

The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon
Köppen climate types in Yukon
Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c. 1899
A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining.
Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon.
The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge.
A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse
The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly.
Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type
From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory.
Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon.
The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon.

Smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories.

- Yukon

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Streetscape of Whitehorse in 1900. The community saw a population boom with the discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1896.
View of Whitehorse in 1910
Whitehorse sits on the Yukon River, located at the base of three nearby mountains; Grey Mountain to the east, Mount Sumanik to the northwest, and Golden Horn Mountain to the south.
Main Street in Downtown Whitehorse. Downtown is the central business district for the area.
An aurora over a residential neighbourhood of Riverdale. Riverdale is located on the east bank of the Yukon River.
Whitehorse hosts the beginning of the Yukon Quest, an annual dog sled race from Whitehorse to Fairbanks, Alaska.
City Hall is home to the Whitehorse City Council.
The Yukon Legislative Building is home to the Yukon Legislative Assembly.
Aerial view of Whitehorse Cadet Summer Training Centre. The facility is used by the Canadian Cadet Organization.
Broadcasting studio for CFWH-FM, which broadcasts programming from CBC Radio One. CFWH-FM is one of seven radio stations based in Whitehorse.
Building for the Whitehorse Daily Star. The Daily Star is one of three newspapers operating in Whitehorse.
Offices for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police M Division. Policing in Whitehorse is carried out by the RCMP.
Whitehorse General Hospital is the only hospital in the city.
Bridge of the Alaska Highway crossing over the Teslin River at Johnsons Crossing
The Whitehorse Waterfront Trolley was a heritage streetcar service that operated from 2000 to 2018.

Whitehorse is the capital of Yukon, and the largest city in Northern Canada.

Yukon River

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Major watercourse of northwestern North America.

Major watercourse of northwestern North America.

Map of the Yukon River watershed
The bridge across the Yukon River at Carmacks on the Klondike Highway
The E. L. Patton Yukon River Bridge carries the Dalton Highway over the Yukon north of Fairbanks.
Canoeing the Yukon River
Crossing the Lake Laberge by canoe
Yukon River near Carmacks
The Yukon River, as seen from the Midnight Dome in Dawson City, Yukon
Anabranches near the junction of the Yukon River and the Koyukuk River in Alaska, August 24, 1941

From its source in British Columbia, Canada, it flows through Canada's territory of Yukon (itself named after the river).


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State located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America.

State located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America.

A modern Alutiiq dancer in traditional festival garb
The Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak town), Kodiak Island, 1814
Miners and prospectors climb the Chilkoot Trail during the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush
U.S. troops navigate snow and ice during the Battle of Attu in May 1943
Alaska's size compared with the 48 contiguous states (Albers equal-area conic projection)
Denali is the highest peak in North America.
Although entirely east of the International Date Line (the triangular kink in the line was agreed upon the US acquisition of Alaska), the Aleutian Islands cross the 180th meridian, such that they contain both the westernmost (Amatignak) and the easternmost (Semisopochnoi) points in the United States
Anchorage, Alaska's largest city
Fairbanks, Alaska's second-largest city and by a significant margin the largest city in Alaska's interior
Juneau, Alaska's third-largest city and its capital
Bethel, the largest city in the Unorganized Borough and in rural Alaska
Homer, showing (from bottom to top) the edge of downtown, its airport and the Spit
Utqiaġvik (Browerville neighborhood near Eben Hopson Middle School shown), known colloquially for many years by the nickname "Top of the World", is the northernmost city in the United States.
Cordova, built in the early 20th century to support the Kennecott Mines and the Copper River and Northwestern Railway, has persevered as a fishing community since their closure.
Main Street in Talkeetna
Alaska has more acreage of public land owned by the federal government than any other state.
Köppen climate types of Alaska
Map of the largest racial/ethnic group by borough. Red indicates Native American, blue indicates non-Hispanic white, and green indicates Asian. Darker shades indicate a higher proportion of the population.
St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Cathedral in downtown Sitka
Gold Rush-era Baptist church in Eagle
Aerial view of infrastructure at the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports oil, Alaska's most financially important export, from the North Slope to Valdez. The heat pipes in the column mounts are pertinent, since they disperse heat upwards and prevent melting of permafrost.
Alaska proven oil reserves peaked in 1973 and have declined more than 60% since then
Alaskan oil production peaked in 1988 and has declined more than 75% since then
Halibut, both as a sport fish and commercially, is important to the state's economy.
A dog team in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, arguably the most popular winter event in Alaska
Mask Display at Iñupiat Heritage Center in Utqiaġvik
Films featuring Alaskan wolves usually employ domesticated wolf-dog hybrids to stand in for wild wolves.
The Kachemak Bay Campus of the University of Alaska Anchorage, located in downtown Homer
The Sterling Highway, near its intersection with the Seward Highway
The Susitna River bridge on the Denali Highway is 1036 ft long.
Alaska Interstate Highways
Alaska welcome sign on the Klondike Highway
An Alaska Railroad locomotive over a bridge in Girdwood approaching Anchorage (2007)
The White Pass and Yukon Route traverses rugged terrain north of Skagway near the Canada–US border.
The (named after Tustumena Glacier) is one of the state's many ferries, providing service between the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island and the Aleutian Chain.
A Bombardier Dash 8, operated by Era Alaska, on approach to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport
The center of state government in Juneau. The large buildings in the background are, from left to right: the Court Plaza Building (known colloquially as the "Spam Can"), the State Office Building (behind), the Alaska Office Building, the John H. Dimond State Courthouse, and the Alaska State Capitol. Many of the smaller buildings in the foreground are also occupied by state government agencies.
A line graph showing the presidential vote by party from 1960 to 2016 in Alaska
Mike Dunleavy, Governor
Kevin Meyer, Lieutenant governor
Lisa Murkowski, senior United States senator
Dan Sullivan, junior United States senator
Don Young, U.S. representative (at-large) (Deceased)
Bob Bartlett & Ernest Gruening, Alaska's inaugural U.S. Senators, hold the 49 star U.S. Flag after the admission of Alaska as the 49th state.
Ketchikan, one of the places affected by COVID-19 during the 2020 outbreak in Alaska

A semi-exclave of the U.S., it borders the Canadian province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory to the east; it also shares a maritime border with the Russian Federation's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug to the west, just across the Bering Strait.

Northwest Territories

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Federal territory of Canada.

Federal territory of Canada.

Köppen climate types in the Northwest Territories
Members of the Coppermine expedition caught by a storm in Coronation Gulf, August 1821
Map of the North-Western Territory and Rupert's Land, 1859
A proclamation concerning the formation of the North-West Territories, from recently transferred territories to the Canadian government
Sign for an eye clinic in Yellowknife with all 11 official territorial languages
Aerial view of the Diavik Diamond Mine in the North Slave Region
Nahanni National Park Reserve, one of several national parks and reserves in the Northwest Territories
The chamber of the Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Administrative regions of the Northwest Territories
A snow fort at the annual Snowking Winter Festival in Yellowknife
Dempster Highway, south of Inuvik
Entrance to Yellowknife Airport, the largest airport in the territory

The Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south, and may touch Manitoba to the southeast (historic surveys being uncertain) at a quadripoint including Nunavut and Saskatchewan.

Yukon at the time of discovery

Klondike Gold Rush

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Yukon at the time of discovery
Skookum Jim, one of the discoverers, 1898
Seattle newspaper announcing the arrival of gold from Klondike, July 17, 1897
Routes to the Klondike (red spot). For details see appendix.
Dead horses on White Pass trail, 1898
Prospectors with supplies at the Chilkoot Pass. In front: The Scales, left: Golden Steps. c. March 1898.
Prospectors in a tent camp at Bennett Lake waiting for the ice on Yukon River to break up, May 1898.
Klondikers sailing toward Dawson on the upper Yukon River, 1898.
A tent-camp along the Pelly River a Canadian tributary to the Yukon River, 1898.
US-Canada border on the Chilkoot Pass, 1898
Mining in a shaft, 1898.
Thawing with steam, 1898
Hill-side mining, showing rockers, c.1899
View of Skagway, 1898
Yukon River with Klondike City (foreground) and Dawson City (upper right), 1899
Dawson after a fire, 1898.
Muddy street in Dawson, 1898
Paying with gold dust, 1899
NWMPs with dogs, 1897
Line at Dawson post office, 1899
Actresses travelling to Dawson, 1898
Roadhouse in the Klondike
Hand-colored photo of Dawson city c. 1899 at the end of the gold rush.
People leaving Dawson City, Yukon for Nome, Alaska September 1899
Plaque to Skookum Jim, Yukon, 2005
Skagway with cruise ships, 2009
Charlie Chaplin in The Gold Rush, 1925
Klondikers buying miner's licenses at the Custom House in Victoria, BC, on February 12, 1898
SS Islander leaving Vancouver, bound for Skagway, 1897
alt=San Francisco, July 1897. The steamship Excelsior leaves San Francisco on July 28, 1897, for the Klondike|The S/S Excelsior leaves San Francisco on July 28, 1897, for the Klondike.{{refn | group = n |Ten times the number onboard had been turned away; only ten arrived.{{sfn|Berton|2001|pp=chp. 4.6 & chp. 7.2}}}}
alt=Map of Dyea/Skagway routes|Overview and close up of Dyea/Skagway route (middle route on left section of map). Each red frame represents the map to the nearest right. Dalton trail is shown to the left on the midsection of the map
alt=Map of Stikine route from 1897|Takou and Stikine route. Red frame: Position of map on map of northern America. Lower right: Stikine route branch from Wrangell meets with branch from Ashcroft at Glenora. They continue along dashed lines. Middle: Takou route meets Stikine route at Teslin Lake. Both routes meet Dyea/Skagway route (dotted line) at upper left
alt=Map of backdoor route|Edmonton routes. Red frame: Position of map on map of northern America. Big arrow: All-Canadian route from Edmonton by rivers and portage to Yukon River via Pelly River. Small arrows: Back door route. Black solid line: McKenzie River most of the way. Upper left corner: Yukon River from Fort Yukon to Dawson City
Map of goldfields with Dawson City and Klondike River at top. Red dot: discovery on Bonanza Creek.
Production of gold in Yukon around the Klondike Gold Rush.<ref name="InformationShareP22">Information Sharing During the Klondike Gold Rush, p. 22</ref> 1896-1903: Increase after discovery at Klondike. 1903-1907: claims are sold; big scale methods take over.

The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of Yukon, in north-western Canada, between 1896 and 1899.

British Columbia

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Westernmost province of Canada.

Westernmost province of Canada.

British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.
Outline map of British Columbia with significant cities and towns
Köppen climate types in British Columbia
The Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver
Shuswap Lake as seen from Sorrento
The Okanagan region has a climate suitable to vineyards.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies
Odaray Mountain and Lake O'Hara
Yoho National Park
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Provincial Park
Humpback whale in Sooke coast
'Namgis Thunderbird Transformation Mask, 19th century
Fort San Miguel at Nootka in 1793
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century
Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, 1851
Cattle near the Maas by Dutch painter Aelbert Cuyp. Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Cuyp.
Victoria, 1864
Lord Strathcona drives the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, November 7, 1885. Completion of the transcontinental railroad was a condition of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
Memorial to the "last spike" in Craigellachie
Statue of Queen Victoria outside the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Internment camp for Japanese Canadians during World War II
W.A.C. Bennett, 25th premier of British Columbia
British Columbia's pavilion for Expo 86, Vancouver
The Coquihalla Highway was one of the legacies of the Expo 86 world's fair, though creation of the toll highway sparked controversy. Tolling was removed in 2008.
The cauldron of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver
Population density map of British Columbia, with regional district borders shown
The Vancouver skyline
Canada Place in Downtown Vancouver
Entrance to Telus Garden
The British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Coat of arms' escutcheon of the current lieutenant governor
John Horgan is premier, BC's head of government.
The meeting chamber of the Legislative Assembly
The flower of the Pacific dogwood is often associated with British Columbia.
The Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 between Richmond and Delta
British Columbia Highway 1 near Brentwood, Burnaby
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge
Spirit of Vancouver Island S-class ferry
Ice sailing in Whistler
Shoreline Trail in Victoria
Hatley Castle on the campus of Royal Roads University
Aerial view of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby
Quest University Canada Academic Building, aerial view

It borders the Canadian province of Alberta to the east and the Canadian territories of Yukon and the Northwest Territories to the north.

Bennett Lake and a part of the Carcross Desert after sunrise

Bennett Lake

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Bennett Lake and a part of the Carcross Desert after sunrise
The White Pass and Yukon Route rail bridge over the strait between Bennett Lake and Nares Lake in Carcross, Yukon. Mount Gray is in the background.
White Pass & Yukon Route train passing through Bennett on February 13, 1900
Photograph of boat building on the lake during the Klondike Gold Rush by Eric A. Hegg
Photograph of tent city of Bennett along One Mile River and Lake Bennett by Eric A. Hegg ca. 1898

Bennett Lake is a lake in the Province of British Columbia and Yukon Territory in northwestern Canada, at an elevation of 2602 ft. (642 m.).

Breakdown of Canada's population from the 2016 census by province/territory

Provinces and territories of Canada

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The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national administrative divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution.

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national administrative divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution.

Breakdown of Canada's population from the 2016 census by province/territory
Territorial evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories
"O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada featuring arms of the Canadian provinces and territories as of 1965
Alberta Legislature Building
British Columbia Parliament Buildings
Manitoba Legislative Building
New Brunswick Legislative Building
Newfoundland and Labrador Confederation Building
Nova Scotia Province House
Ontario Legislative Building
Prince Edward Island Province House
Quebec Parliament Building
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Nunavut Legislative Building
Yukon Legislative Building

The territories (the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon) account for over a third of Canada's area but are only home to 0.3% of its population, which skews the national population density value.

Klondike Highway near Five Finger Rapids (Yukon River)

Klondike Highway

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Klondike Highway near Five Finger Rapids (Yukon River)
Fireweed is prominent in various locations on the Klondike Highway (this is in the vicinity of Summit Lake and Bernard Lake in British Columbia).
Five Finger Rapids seen from Klondike Highway
The bridge across the Yukon River at Carmacks
Store at the service station in Stewart Crossing

The Klondike Highway is a highway that runs from the Alaska Panhandle through the province of British Columbia and the territory of Yukon in Canada, linking the coastal town of Skagway, Alaska, to Dawson City, Yukon.

Mayo, Yukon

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Mayo is a village in Yukon, Canada, along the Silver Trail and the Stewart River.