# Z notation

Formal specification language used for describing and modelling computing systems.

- Z notation54 related topics

## Formal specification

In computer science, formal specifications are mathematically based techniques whose purpose are to help with the implementation of systems and software.

languages such as Z, VDM or B rely on this paradigm

## Jean-Raymond Abrial

Jean-Raymond Abrial (born 1938) is a French computer scientist and inventor of the Z and B formal methods.

## Specification language

Formal language in computer science used during systems analysis, requirements analysis, and systems design to describe a system at a much higher level than a programming language, which is used to produce the executable code for a system.

This is in contrast to so-called model-oriented specification in frameworks like VDM and Z, which consist of a simple realization of the required behaviour.

## Bertrand Meyer

French academic, author, and consultant in the field of computer languages.

His experiences with object technology through the Simula language, as well as early work on abstract data types and formal specification (including the Z notation), provided some of the background for the development of Eiffel.

## CICS

Family of mixed-language application servers that provide online transaction management and connectivity for applications on IBM mainframe systems under z/OS and z/VSE.

Part of CICS was formalized using the Z notation in the 1980s and 1990s in collaboration with the Oxford University Computing Laboratory, under the leadership of Tony Hoare.

## Programming Research Group

Part of the Oxford University Computing Laboratory (OUCL) in Oxford, England, along with the Numerical Analysis Group, until OUCL became the Department of Computer Science in 2011.

The PRG was a centre of excellence in the field of formal methods, playing a leading role in the development of the Z notation (initiated by a visit of Jean-Raymond Abrial) and CSP (together with the associated Occam programming language).

## Dansk Datamatik Center

Danish software research and development centre that existed from 1979 to 1989.

It sought to remedy VDM's weaknesses with respect to modularity, concurrency, and lack of tools, and it also sought to unify approaches taken in the likes of Z notation, CSP, Larch, and OBJ.

## Formal methods

In computer science, specifically software engineering and hardware engineering, formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically rigorous techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

Examples of this lightweight approach to formal methods include the Alloy object modelling notation, Denney's synthesis of some aspects of the Z notation with use case driven development, and the CSK VDM Tools.

## HOL (proof assistant)

HOL (Higher Order Logic) denotes a family of interactive theorem proving systems using similar (higher-order) logics and implementation strategies.

3) ProofPower a collection of tools designed to provide special support for working with the Z notation for formal specification. 5 of the 6 tools are GNU GPL v2 licensed. The sixth (PPDaz) has a proprietary license.