A report on Zacatecas

Stream in the Sierra de Cardos, part of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
Yucca decipiens in the state
Sierra of Organos National Park
Agriculture in Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico
Huichol woman and child
Zacatecan Danza de Matachines (Dance of the Matachines)
View of the Salón de las Columnas in La Quemada.

One of the 31 states of Mexico.

- Zacatecas

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Jalisco

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One of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

One of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Along the shore of Lake Chapala
Near the Primavera Forest
View of a sunny day near Mascota, Jalisco in January
A Wixárika man making a beaded jaguar head
Regions of Jalisco
Four physiographic regions of Jalisco
View of Mascota, Jalisco
Figure; 2nd century; ceramic; height: 7.9 cm (3 in.); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Cristóbal de Olid leads Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquests of Jalisco, 1522. From Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
Painting of Prisciliano Sánchez, first governor of the state
View of Puerto Vallarta
Colorful painted egg shells, filled with confetti, handmade by village children and used to celebrate the most important traditions of Ajijic, Jalisco.
Typical Mariachi of Jalisco.
Akron Stadium
Chivas banner at a game
Parroquia de Santiago Apostol, in Tequila
Parroquia de San Antonio, in Tapalpa
Parroquia de Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion, en Lagos de Moreno
Parroquia de San Miguel Arcangel in San Miguel el Alto
Guadalajara Cathedral
Parroquia de San Francisco in Tepatitlán de Morelos
Catedral Basílica de Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos in San Juan de los Lagos, 2nd most visited religious center in the country
Basilica of Our Lady of Zapopan, in Zapopan
Basilica de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, in Talpa de Allende
Parroquia de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, in Puerto Vallarta

It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states, which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán, and Colima.

Guadalajara

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Metropolis in western Mexico and the capital of the state of Jalisco.

Metropolis in western Mexico and the capital of the state of Jalisco.

Monument to Beatriz Hernández, one of the founders of Guadalajara
The Coat of Arms of Guadalajara, granted by Emperor Charles V in 1539
Guadalajara, c. 1836
Centennial Monument to Mexican Independence
Central Guadalajara, c. 1905
Guadalajara and its metropolitan area have grown significantly in the 21st century, surpassing 5 million people in 2018.
Americas Avenue
Parque de los Jalicienses Ilustres
The Barranca de Huentitán
Parque 20 de Noviembre, Zapopan
Radial urban planning in central Guadalajara
Map of the city's zones
Western Guadalajara business district skyline
Street in the historic center
Parque de la Revolución
Parque Rehilete Alcalde
Map of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (AMG)
Riu Plaza Hotel, the tallest skyscraper in the city
Hyatt Andares Hotel
Andares shopping mall in the Puerta de Hierro (Zapopan) district
The Teatro Degollado, named after its builder, Santos Degollado, was built in 1855.
Street in the historic center
Guadalajara Regional Museum
San Felipe de Neri Church
The Guadalajara International Film Festival, founded in 1986, is the most important film festival in Latin America.
The handover presentation during the 2007 Pan American Games closing ceremony for the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara
The Guadalajara International Book Fair is the largest Spanish-language fair in the world, as well as the largest book fair in the Americas.
The 2008 Guadalajara International Book Fair's booksellers pavilion
Árbol adentro by José Fors
San José de Gracia Church, built in 1899
Equestrian statue of José María Morelos
Guadalajara Arena (Project)
Plaza de los Mariachis
Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra
Cafe on Avenida Vallarta
Tequila can only be produced in Jalisco in the regions north of Guadalajara around Santiago de Tequila and Los Altos de Jalisco.
Green Pozole
Estadio Akron, House of Chivas football team, built for the 2010 Copa Libertadores
Estadio Charros, built for the 2011 Pan American Games
City Palace of Guadalajara
Palace of Justice of Jalisco
The municipality of Guadalajara borders five other municipalities.
The University of Guadalajara, founded in 1791, is one of the highest ranking universities in Latin America.
State Library of Jalisco
Guadalajara University Center of Art, Architecture and Design
Guadalajara International Airport is the 10th busiest airport in Latin America and a hub for Aeroméxico, Volaris, Interjet, and VivaAerobus.
Hospicio Cabañas
Palacio del Gobierno
Palacio Legislativo
Guadalajara Monument
Señora del Pilar Church
{{ill|Palacio de Velasco|es|Palacio de Velasco (Guadalajara)|vertical-align=sup}}
Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres
Guadalajara City Hall
Templo Expiatorio
Señora de la Merced Church
Palacio de Justicia
{{ill|Sanctuary of Guadalupe|es|Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe (Guadalajara, Jalisco)|vertical-align=sup}}

The first colonial settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas.

Guanajuato

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One of the 32 states that make up the Federal Entities of Mexico.

One of the 32 states that make up the Federal Entities of Mexico.

Altos de Guanajuato
Cerro Culiacán from Jaral del Progreso
Yuriria Lake
Farmland in the Bajío
Chupícuaro statuette at the Louvre
San Agustín de Yuriria Convent, founded by the Augustinians in 1550.
Jaral de Berrios, one of the most important haciendas of the colonial era.
Plaza Mayor de Guanajuato, view of the main square of Guanajuato, c. 1836 Carl Nebel
Trolley passing in front of the San Diego Church in Guanajuato, 1907
Orphaned Polish children in Santa Rosa, Guanajuato that arrived with a larger group of refugees during the Second World War.
Rayas mine near the city of Guanajuato
The bola de agua in Celaya; the water tower is an icon of the city.
Hidalgo Street in San Miguel de Allende
Mummies at the Museo de las Momias
Viacrucis in Santa Ana, Guanajuato
A birria dish served at the Mercado Hidalgo in Guanajuato
View of the main building of the University of Guanajuato
A car and pedestrian pass in a tunnel under Guanajuato city
Peralta archeological site
One of the structures at the Plazuelas archeological site

It is bordered by the states of Jalisco to the west, Zacatecas to the northwest, San Luis Potosí to the north, Querétaro to the east, and Michoacán to the south.

Palace of Government of Zacatecas, former cathedral convent section, historic center

Zacatecas City

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Palace of Government of Zacatecas, former cathedral convent section, historic center
Former city mint
Interior de Zacatecas, lithograph, 1836
Painting of the Toma de Zacatecas, Chapultepec Castle, Mexico City
The former Plaza de Toros with El Cubo aqueduct in the background. The bullring was repurposed into an hotel in 1989.
The Cerro de la Bufa's cableway on the street level
Equestrian stature of Panfilo Natera at Cerro de la Bufa
Equestrian statue of Pancho Villa, atop Cerro de la Bufa, site of his greatest victory
The cathedral was built between 1729 and 1753, regarded by many as the last, and greatest, expression of the churrigueresque style.
Hidalgo Avenue and Rosales Arcade in the bottom
The Mercado Jesús González Ortega second floor. The public market was constructed during the Porfiriato.
Temple of Santo Domingo
Calderón Theatre.
The Francisco Goitia Museum is housed in the former residence of the Governor of the State of Zacatecas
Look of Zacatecas during an abnormal winter
Estadio Carlos Vega Villalba

Zacatecas is the principal city within the municipality in Mexico of the same name, and the capital and the largest city of the state of Zacatecas.

Coahuila

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One of the 32 states of Mexico.

One of the 32 states of Mexico.

Building at the Iberoamerican University
Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila.
Ciudad Acuña.
Monclova
Piedras Negras
Torreón

Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west.

Durango

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One of the 31 states which make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico, situated in the northwest of the country.

One of the 31 states which make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico, situated in the northwest of the country.

View toward the canyon at the Mexiquillo (es) nature reserve.
Desert tortoise in the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve
El Picacho in the Valleys region of the state
Mexicaneros during Candlemas celebrations in San Pedro Jícaras
Small Tepehuan carrying bag in traditional design
Azatlan-style pottery at the Durango City Archeological Museum.
Captain Francisco de Ibarra
Catedral basílica de Victoria de Durango
Photo of Gen. Pancho Villa and his wife, Sra. María Luz Corral de Villa (1914)

Durango is landlocked, bordered by Chihuahua, Coahuila, Zacatecas, Nayarit and Sinaloa.

New Spain

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Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
In 1794.
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Evangelization of Mexico
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)
The cathedral of Yucatan.
Church of la merced, one of the oldest spanish churches in america and the oldest one of Honduras.

In the 1540s, the discovery of silver in Zacatecas attracted Spanish mining entrepreneurs and workers, to exploit the mines, as well as crown officials to ensure the crown received its share of revenue.

Mexico

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Country in the southern portion of North America.

Country in the southern portion of North America.

Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Topographic map of Mexico
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Mexican wolf
Gray whale
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

The capital Mexico City was and remains the premier city, but other cities founded in the sixteenth century remain important, including Puebla, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, Oaxaca, and the port of Veracruz.

Mexican Plateau

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Large arid-to-semiarid plateau that occupies much of northern and central Mexico.

Large arid-to-semiarid plateau that occupies much of northern and central Mexico.

Mesa del Norte is part of the extreme northern part of the Mexican Plateau.

A low east-west mountain range in the state of Zacatecas divides the plateau into northern and southern sections.

Nuevo León

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State in the northeast region of Mexico.

State in the northeast region of Mexico.

The original Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo León in Monterrey.
La Huasteca State Park
Trace of petroglyphs engraved on rocks at Boca de Potrerillos.
Biotechnology center of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.
Wind turbines at the Parques Eólicos Ventika located in General Bravo. The wind-power complex has the capacity to produce 252 megawatts and can meet the electricity demand of some 630,000 homes.
The facilities of the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma brewery in Nuevo Leon are the single largest producer of alcoholic beverages in the world.

The state is bordered by Tamaulipas to the east, Coahuila to the west, and both Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi to the south.