Zhang Fakui

Zhang Fakui on the cover of The Young Companion, June 1938

Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.

- Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui on the cover of The Young Companion, June 1938

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The location of Nanchang uprising.

Nanchang uprising

The first major Nationalist Party of China–Chinese Communist Party engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Chinese Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang.

The first major Nationalist Party of China–Chinese Communist Party engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Chinese Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang.

The location of Nanchang uprising.
Zhou Enlai
Location of Nanchang in China

Deng Yanda, Song Qingling and Zhang Fakui (listed nominally, who later crushed the uprising) were among the political leaders.

Map showing the province of Henan and two definitions of the Central Plain (中原) or Zhōngyuán

Central Plains War

Series of military campaigns in 1929 and 1930 that constituted a Chinese civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders and warlords that were former allies of Chiang.

Series of military campaigns in 1929 and 1930 that constituted a Chinese civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders and warlords that were former allies of Chiang.

Map showing the province of Henan and two definitions of the Central Plain (中原) or Zhōngyuán
The flag of the Kuomintang and the flag of the Republic of China crested on a building in Harbin, Manchuria
NRA Generals in Beijing after Northern Expedition
NRA Commission Committee meeting
China from 1929 to 1930
Map showing the situation of China during the Central Plains War in 1930
The Northwest Army
The Shanxi Army
The Central Army

After the Northern Expedition ended in 1928, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren and Zhang Fakui broke off relations with Chiang shortly after a demilitarization conference in 1929, and together they formed an anti-Chiang coalition to openly challenge the legitimacy of the Nanjing government.

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an advance in the rubble of Shanghai.

Battle of Shanghai

The first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an advance in the rubble of Shanghai.
Ōyama Incident on August 9, 1937
Zhabei on fire
Exterior of Shanghai's Cathay Hotel after an ROC NRA bombing run on August 14, 1937
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Japanese amphibious landings
A famous photo entitled "Bloody Saturday", showing a burned and terrified baby in Shanghai's South Station following an IJN aerial attack against civilians, August 28, 1937
Chinese troops making a charge in Luodian
Chinese soldiers near a bombed-out building
Japanese troops reaching the destroyed North Station in downtown Shanghai
A Japanese casualty is evacuated during fighting at the Suzhou Creek.
Japanese troops crawling through the ruins
Japanese rear guard units landing supplies in Jinshanwei
Chinese treating casualties from Japanese gas attacks
Iwane Matsui in Nanjing
Japanese soldiers pose next to a bronze statue of Sun Yat-sen after capturing Shanghai.
China's officer corps took a particularly strong hit in the battle.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek on the frontline

Li Zongren, Bai Chongxi, Zhang Fakui and other commanders insisted that the Chinese troops should enter the Wufu and Xicheng defense lines to protect Nanjing, but Chiang wanted the Chinese troops to continue fighting on the southern bank of Suzhou Creek.

Communist casualties

Guangzhou Uprising

Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Communist casualties

The CCP thought that fighting between the Kuomintang-aligned warlords Zhang Fakui and Li Jishen was imminent in Guangdong, potentially providing them with an opportunity to exploit the ensuing chaos by launching multiple simultaneous rebellions to seize power in the province.

Chiang in 1943

Chiang Kai-shek

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary, and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928, until 1949 in mainland China, and then in Taiwan until his death in 1975.

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary, and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928, until 1949 in mainland China, and then in Taiwan until his death in 1975.

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

After the Northern Expedition ended in 1928, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren and Zhang Fakui broke off relations with Chiang shortly after a demilitarization conference in 1929, and together they formed an anti-Chiang coalition to openly challenge the legitimacy of the Nanjing government.

The concept first appearing in the newspaper Min Bao in 1905 appearing as "Three Major Principles" (三大主義) instead of "Three Principles of the People" (三民主義).

Three Principles of the People

Political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China made during the Republican Era.

Political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China made during the Republican Era.

The concept first appearing in the newspaper Min Bao in 1905 appearing as "Three Major Principles" (三大主義) instead of "Three Principles of the People" (三民主義).
"Portrait of Sun Yat-sen" (1921) Li Tiefu Oil on Canvas 93×71.7cm
A sign on Dadan Island near Quemoy (Kinmen) facing Mainland China proclaiming "Three Principles of the People Unites China" set by General Zhao in Aug. 1986, dismissed after 1987 Lieyu Massacre

General Zhang Fakui shrewdly blocked the Communists of Vietnam, and Ho Chi Minh from entering the league, as his main goal was Chinese influence in Indo China.

A Qing dynasty illustration of Zhang Fei

Zhang Fei

Military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China.

Military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China.

A Qing dynasty illustration of Zhang Fei
Zhang Fei in Japanese Ukiyo-e.
Zhang Fei (center) talks with Liu Bei, from a 2015 Peking opera performance by Shanghai Jingju Theatre Company at Tianchan Theatre, Shanghai.
A statue of Zhang Fei in Zhuge Liang's temple in Chengdu, Sichuan.
An illustration of Zhang Fei's assassination at the Long Corridor of the Summer Palace, Beijing.
illustration of Zhang Fei by Yashima Gakutei in the Chester Beatty Library
Statues of the three sworn brothers. From left to right: Liu Bei, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei.

Zhang Fakui, a general in the National Revolutionary Army, was nicknamed "Zhang Fei".

Portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".

Guangzhou

Capital and the largest city of Guangdong province in southern China.

Capital and the largest city of Guangdong province in southern China.

Portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".
The jade burial suit of Zhao Mo in Guangzhou's Nanyue King Museum
Guangzhou (as 廣) on the 1136 Map of the Tracks of Yu
Old photograph of a commercial Guangzhou street
Guangzhou ("Canton") and the surrounding islands of Henan ("Hanan"), Pazhou ("Whampoa"), changzhou ("Dane's Island"), and Xiaoguwei ("French Island") during the First Opium War's Second Battle of Canton. The large East Indiamen of the Canton trade used the anchorage sheltered by these four islands, but the village and island of Huangpu for which it was named make up no part of present-day Guangzhou's Huangpu District.
Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs
Map of Guangzhou (labeled as KUANG-CHOU (CANTON) 廣州) in surrounding region (AMS, 1954)
Tiantang Peak, highest mountain in Guangzhou
The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building
The east square of Guangzhou railway station in 1991.
Guangzhou Opera House
Guangdong Olympic Stadium
Tianhe Stadium is the home of Guangzhou F.C.
Yuexiushan Stadium is the home of Guangzhou City F.C.
Canton Tower
Bombax ceiba, Guangzhou's official flower
Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street
Sun Yat-sen University main gate
The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University
Guangzhou Library
Nieuhof's imaginative 1665 map of "Kanton",<ref>{{citation |last=La Carpentier |first=Jean-Baptiste |author-link=Jean-Baptiste Le Carpentier |title=L'Ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine [Embassy of the United Provinces' East India Company to the Emperor of China] |date=1655 |language=fr}}</ref> made from secondhand accounts when Europeans were still forbidden from entering the walled city
The Thirteen Factories {{c.|1805|lk=no}}, displaying the flags of Denmark, Spain, the United States, Sweden, Britain, and the Netherlands
An 1855 painting of the gallery of Tingqua, one of the most successful suppliers of "export paintings" for Guangzhou's foreign traders.
Vrooman's 1860 map of the "City and Entire Suburbs of Canton", one of the first made after the treaties of Tianjin and Beijing permitted foreigners full access to Guangzhou's walled city
The Flowery Pagoda at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees in 1863
The Five-story Pagoda atop Yuexiu Hill {{c.|1880|lk=no}}
The Sacred Heart Cathedral towering over the one- and two-story homes of old Guangzhou {{c.|1880|lk=no}}
Street scene in Guangzhou, 1919
The US Navy's Dept of Navigation's 1920 map of "Canton"<ref>{{citation |url=https://archive.org/stream/cantonchina00unitrich#page/4/mode/2up |title=US Navy Ports of the World: Canton |publisher=US Bureau of Navigation |series=Ditty Box Guide Book Series |year=1920 |at=Canton}}</ref>
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek at the opening of the Whampoa Military Academy on 16 June 1924
The Guangzhou Bund in 1930, with rows of Tanka boats.
The People's Liberation Army entering Guangzhou on 14 October 1949
Map of Guangzhou (labeled as KUANG-CHOU (CANTON))
Guangzhou skyline
The former Canton Fair site at Yuexiu's Liuhua Complex
Interior of the current Canton Fair site in Pazhou, 2006
Gongyuanqian Station of the Guangzhou Metro
Tianhe Sports Center Station (GBRT)
Baiyun International Airport in Huadu District
A CRH3 Train at Guangzhou South Railway Station
A Tram at Wanshengwei Station
Guangzhou's Temple of the Five Immortals
{{nowrap|The Hall of the 500 Arhats}} at the {{nowrap|Flowery Forest Temple}} (Hualin) in the 1870s
{{nowrap|The Temple of Bright Filial Piety}}
Guangzhou's City God Temple
The sacred pigs of the Ocean Banner Temple ({{nowrap|Hoi Tong)}} in the 1830s
{{nowrap|The Flower Pagoda}} at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (Liurong)
The Thousand Buddha Tower at the present-day {{nowrap|Hoi Tong Monastery}}
Sacred Heart Cathedral
Tianhe Church, built in 2017
The Pearl River at Haiyin Bridge
Zhujiang New City from Pakwan or Baiyun Mountain
A brick carving at the Guangzhou Folk Art Museum, housed in the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall
Canton Custom House (est. 1916), one of the oldest surviving in China
Aiqun Hotel, Guangzhou's tallest building from 1937 to 1967
Our Lady of Lourdes Chapel on Shamian
The old provincial capitol, now the Museum of Revolutionary History
Guangzhou's CBD, including the IFC (right)

Later in 1927 when Zhang Fakui, a general supportive of the Wuhan faction seized Canton and installed Wang Jingwei's faction in the city, the communists saw an opening and launched the Guangzhou Uprising.

Hakka dancers performing traditional Qilin dance in Malaysia

Hakka people

The Hakka, sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guizhou, as well as Taiwan.

The Hakka, sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guizhou, as well as Taiwan.

Hakka dancers performing traditional Qilin dance in Malaysia
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Hakka peasant couple wearing Hanfu during Ming dynasty, by Boxer Codex (1590), Observed by the Colonial Spanish Authorities in Manila, Philippines around 1590 AD.
Hakka distribution in mainland China and Taiwan.
Hakka Chinese sign
Taiwanese Hakka opera at the Zhongyuan festival.
Hakkapop festival
Tianluokeng Tulou cluster. Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian.
Typical traditional hillside tombs. Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian.
Meizhou Prefecture (in yellow) in Guangdong Province, where Xingning and Meixian are located.
Christian missionaries with Hakka students of a girls' school in Waichow, Guangdong, 1921.
Gun port of Chengqilou in a Hakka Fujian Tulou.
A firearm for defence against enemies in a Hakka Fujian Tulou.
Hakka women in traditional attire in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, pre-1945.
Taoyuan Hakka Culture Hall, Taiwan
Hakka Round House in Miaoli County.
Muar Hakka Association in Johor.
Indonesian Hakka Museum in Jakarta.
A mixed wedding of East Timorese and Hakka in East Timor, where the four flower girls and the mother of the bride on the far right are of Hakka descent.
Tianluokeng Tulou cluster. Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian.
Tsai Ing-wen, a Taiwanese Hakka descent, President of Republic of China (Taiwan), attended the "Lecturer Hakka Langugae Radio Broadcasting", to give a speech.

Some of the best of Nationalist China generals: Chen Mingshu, Chen Jitang, Xue Yue and Zhang Fakui amongst many others are Hakka as well.

Flag of the Vietnamese Nationalist Party, used from 1929 to 1945

Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng

Nationalist and democratic socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.

Nationalist and democratic socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.

Flag of the Vietnamese Nationalist Party, used from 1929 to 1945
Flag of the Vietnamese Revolutionary Army during the Yên Bái mutiny
Following the Yên Bái mutiny, the VNQDĐ went into exile in China, merging with some followers of Phan Bội Châu (pictured).
Ngo Dinh Diem

Chinese KMT General Zhang Fakui created the league to further Chinese influence in Indochina, against the French and Japanese.