Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-LiangCheung Hok-leungYoung Marshal张学良
Chang Hsueh-liang or Zhang Xueliang (later, Peter H. L. Chang) (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), nicknamed the "Young Marshal", was the effective ruler of Northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.wikipedia
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Xi'an Incident

Xian IncidentChiang was kidnappedhis kidnap and release
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria.
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Republic of China, was detained by his subordinates, Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, in order to force the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) to change its policies regarding the Empire of Japan and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai ShekJiang JieshiChiang Kaishek
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria. With the assistance of Australian journalist William Henry Donald, he overcame his opium addiction and declared his support for Chiang Kai-shek, leading to the reunification of China in 1928.
In December, the Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang pledged allegiance to Chiang's government, completing Chiang's nominal unification of China and ending the Warlord Era.

Fengtian clique

FengtianFengtian ArmyFengtien clique
He graduated from Fengtian Military Academy, was made a colonel in the Fengtian Army, and appointed the commander of his father's bodyguards in 1919.
After the assassination, his son, Zhang Xueliang, took over the leadership of the clique, later pledging himself and his army to the Kuomintang government in Nanking.

Northeast Flag Replacement

Chinese reunificationChinese reunification (1928)reunification of China
With the assistance of Australian journalist William Henry Donald, he overcame his opium addiction and declared his support for Chiang Kai-shek, leading to the reunification of China in 1928.
The Northeast Flag Replacement refers to Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 that all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria would be replaced with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one government.

Second United Front

United FrontSecond Kuomintang-CCP United Fronta nominal alliance
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria. On 12 December 1936, Zhang and Gen. Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang and imprisoned him until he agreed to form a united front with the communists against the Japanese invasion.
In 1936, Chiang Kai-shek assigned the "young marshal" Zhang Xueliang the duty of suppressing the Red Army of the CCP.

Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)

Sino-Soviet conflictManchouli IncidentSino-Soviet conflict of 1929
Zhang was a fierce critic of many of the Soviet Union's policies, which served to undermine Chinese sovereignty, including its interference in Outer Mongolia.
The Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 was an armed conflict between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang of the Republic of China over the Chinese Eastern Railway (also known as CER).

Liaoning

Liaoning ProvinceFengtianFengtian Province
Born in Haicheng, Liaoning province in 1901, Zhang was educated by private tutors and, unlike his father, felt at ease in the company of westerners.
During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang.

Kuomintang

KMTNationalistnationalists
In December of the same year he proclaimed his allegiance to the Kuomintang (KMT; Chinese Nationalist Party).
Zhang Xueliang, who believed that the Japanese invasion was a greater threat, was persuaded by the CPC to take Chiang hostage during the Xi'an Incident in 1937 and forced Chiang to agree to an alliance with them in the total war against the Japanese.

Yan Xishan

Yen Hsi-shanYen Hsi – shan
In 1930, when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, Zhang stepped in to support the Nanjing-based government against the Northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hebei Province and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianjin.
When the governor of Manchuria, Zhang Xueliang, publicly declared his allegiance to Chiang (whose support Zhang required in order to contest the Russians and Japanese), Yan fled to Dalian in the Japanese-held Kwantung Leased Territory, only returning to an unconquered Shanxi after making peace with Chiang in 1931.

Central Plains War

Battle of Central PlainsCentral Plainsnew regional warlords
In 1930, when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, Zhang stepped in to support the Nanjing-based government against the Northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hebei Province and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianjin.
The Northern Expedition ended with the reunification of China in 1928 under the Nanjing government, as Zhang Xueliang declared the allegiance of his Northeast Army to the Nationalist government in Nanjing, following the assassination of his father Zhang Zuolin by the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Feng Yuxiang

Feng Yu-hsiangFeng Yü-hsiang
In 1930, when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, Zhang stepped in to support the Nanjing-based government against the Northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hebei Province and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianjin.
This Zhili clique defeated the Fengtian clique, headed by Zhang Zuolin, father of Zhang Xueliang, in the First Zhili–Fengtian War in 1922.

William Henry Donald

With the assistance of Australian journalist William Henry Donald, he overcame his opium addiction and declared his support for Chiang Kai-shek, leading to the reunification of China in 1928.
He was also an advisor to the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang, the general who kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek at Xi'an in December 1936; some years before the kidnapping, Donald had arranged a cure for Zhang's drug addiction.

Zhang Zuolin

Chang Tso-linZhang ZuolingChang Tso Lin
Chang Hsueh-liang or Zhang Xueliang (later, Peter H. L. Chang) (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), nicknamed the "Young Marshal", was the effective ruler of Northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhang was succeeded, both as warlord of Manchuria and head of the now-exiled Beiyang Government, by his eldest son: Zhang Xueliang, the so-called "Young Marshal".

Chinese Civil War

civil warCommunist RevolutionChina
On 6 April 1936, Zhang met with CPC delegate Zhou Enlai to plan the end of the Chinese Civil War.
So he would rather ignore the discontent and anger among Chinese people at his policy of compromise with the Japanese, and ordered KMT generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng to carry out suppression of the CPC; however, their provincial forces suffered significant casualties in battles with the Red Army. ref

House arrest

home detentionhome confinementhome
Once they were away from Zhang's loyal troops, Chiang had him put under house arrest.
* Zhang Xueliang, ordered by Chiang Kai-shek to be kept under house arrest after the Xi'an Incident in 1936.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

invasion of Manchuriainvaded Manchuriainvaded
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria.

Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhou En-laiZhou En Lai
On 6 April 1936, Zhang met with CPC delegate Zhou Enlai to plan the end of the Chinese Civil War.
Zhou made contact with one of the most senior KMT commanders in the northwest, Zhang Xueliang.

Yang Hucheng

杨虎城
On 12 December 1936, Zhang and Gen. Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang and imprisoned him until he agreed to form a united front with the communists against the Japanese invasion.
Ordered to destroy the newly established Communist Party of China (CPC) stronghold at Yan'an with Zhang Xueliang's Northeast Army in 1935, both Yang and Zhang Xueliang were impressed with the Communists' determined defense and fighting capabilities.

The Xi'an Incident (film)

The Xi'an Incident
Marshal Zhang Xueliang, Commander of the North Eastern Army, grows progressively disillusioned by Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek's policy to engage the Chinese Communist Party rather than fight the Japanese invaders which are occupying Manchuria.

Drunken Master II

The Legend of Drunken MasterThe Legend of the Drunken Master

Battle of Rehe

Reheinvaded Reheinvasion of Jehol
The Battle of Rehe (, sometimes called the Battle of Jehol) was the second part of Operation Nekka, a campaign by which the Empire of Japan successfully captured the Inner Mongolian province of Rehe from the Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang and annexed it to the new state of Manchukuo.

Zhang Xueming

Xueming was a full brother of the famed "Young Marshal", Zhang Xueliang.

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
A year later, in the September 18 Mukden Incident, Japanese troops attacked Zhang's forces in Shenyang (Mukden) in order to provoke a full-on war with China, which Chiang did not want until his forces were stronger.
Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin's son and successor, joined the Nanjing Government led by Chiang Kai-shek from anti-Japanese sentiment.

History of the Republic of China

Republic of ChinaHistory of Republic of ChinaRepublican China
The importance of "internal unity before external danger" was forcefully brought home in December 1936, when Chiang Kai-shek, in an event now known as the Xi'an Incident, was kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang and forced to ally with the Communists against the Japanese in the Second Kuomintang-CCP United Front against Japan.