Zhongyuan

Central PlainsCentral PlainChinese heartlandCentral Plain (China)Central China PlainYellow River PlainCentral Plain areaCentral Plain of ChinaChina's Central PlainChinese plain
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.wikipedia
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Henan

Henan ProvinceHenan, ChinaHonan
In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province.
Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou, which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper.

North China Plain

Central Plainseastern plaingreat plain
It forms part of the North China Plain.
The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain, which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

Luoyang

ChengzhouLuoyang CityLuoyang, China
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.
Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization, and is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.

Sinocentrism

SinocentricSinocentric world orderSinocentric system
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.
Originally the center was synonymous with the Zhongyuan, an area that was expanded through invasion and conquest over many centuries.

China proper

ChinaInner ChinaEighteen Provinces
In a broader context, the term Zhongyuan refers to Chinese civilization and China proper, regions directly governed by centralized Chinese governments and dynasties.
One definition refers to the original area of Chinese civilization, the Central Plain (in the North China Plain); another to the "Eighteen Provinces" system of the Qing dynasty.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
However, when used to describe the Chinese civilization, Zhongyuan often connotes Huaxia and Han Chinese cultural dominance.
The term Huaxia represents the collective Neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in northern China.

Yellow River

YellowHuang HeYellow River Valley
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

Zhongyuan culture

Zhongyuan culture refers to the culture of Zhongyuan, the "Central Plains" of China; centered in much of Henan province and parts of nearby provinces like Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and Shaanxi.

Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou, ChinaZhengzhou, HenanZhengzhou City
It is one of the National Central Cities in China, the centre of Central Plains area and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province, as well as a major transportation hub in China (highway, railway, aviation, communication).

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Inscriptions on some bronze objects from this era contain references to the 'Central States' (Zhongguo), 'Eastern States', or 'Southern States'.
It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.

Huaxia

ChineseHua XiaHuáxià
However, when used to describe the Chinese civilization, Zhongyuan often connotes Huaxia and Han Chinese cultural dominance.

Kaifeng

DaliangBianjingDongjing
Kaifeng is the headquarter of the 20th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of three group armies that comprise the Jinan Military Region responsible for defence of the Yellow River Plain.

Hebei

Hebei ProvinceHopeiHopeh
In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province.

Shanxi

Shanxi ProvinceShansiShangxi
In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province.

Shandong

Shandong ProvinceShantungShantung Province
In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province.

Guanzhong

Guanzhong PlaincentralGuanzhong Plains
A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi ProvinceShensiShǎnxī
A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.

Jiangsu

Jiangsu ProvinceKiangsuJiang Su
A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.

Anhui

Anhui ProvinceAnhweiAnhui, China
A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.

Recorded history

written historyhistorical recordhistorical records
Since the beginning of recorded history, the Central Plain has been an important site for Chinese civilization.

Xia dynasty

XiaKing of the Xia dynastyXia Kingdom
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.

Mount Song

SongshanShaoshi MountainSong Mountains
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.

Luo River (Henan)

Luo RiverLuoYi-Luo river basin
In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.

Chinese culture

ChinesecultureCulture of China
In a broader context, the term Zhongyuan refers to Chinese civilization and China proper, regions directly governed by centralized Chinese governments and dynasties.