Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhou En-laiZhou En LaiChou En LaiChou EnlaiZhouCh'''ou (en Lai)Chao En-LaiCho En-laiChou-en-Lai
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976), also known as Zhou Xiangyu (courtesy name), was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China.wikipedia
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Liu Shaoqi

Liu Shao-chiLiu Shao-ch'i
As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor (the third person after Liu Shaoqi and Lin), but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China.
For 15 years, President Liu was the third most powerful man in China, behind only Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai.

Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China

1972 Nixon visit to Chinavisit to China1972 visit to China
Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China.
After a series of these overtures by both countries, Kissinger flew on secret diplomatic missions to Beijing in 1971, where he met with Premier Zhou Enlai.

Hua Guofeng

Chairman HuaGuofengHua Kuo-feng
Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng as First Vice Chairman and designated successor, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978.
After the death of Zhou Enlai, Mao elevated Hua to the position of Premier of the State Council, overseeing government work, and of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party, which made him Mao's designated successor.

Cultural Revolution

Chinese Cultural RevolutionGreat Proletarian Cultural RevolutionCulture Revolution
Zhou survived the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution.
By the early 1960s, many of the Great Leap's economic policies were reversed by initiatives spearheaded by Liu, Deng, and Zhou Enlai.

Lin Biao

Lin Biao incidentLin PiaoLin Bao Incident
As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor (the third person after Liu Shaoqi and Lin), but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China.
At Whampoa, Lin also studied under Zhou Enlai, who was eight years older than Lin.

Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China

Foreign MinisterChinese Foreign MinisterMinister of Foreign Affairs
A skilled and able diplomat, Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958.

Tiananmen Incident

April Fifth Movement1976 Tiananmen Incident1976 protests
The massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger at the Gang of Four, leading to the 1976 Tiananmen Incident.
The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning, the Qingming Festival, after the Nanjing Incident, and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year.

Shaoxing

KuaijiShaoxing, ZhejiangYuezhou
The Zhou family was originally from Shaoxing in Zhejiang province.
Notable residents of Shaoxing include Wang Xizhi, the parents of Zhou Enlai, Lu Xun, and Cai Yuanpei.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
Zhou served under Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and later in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, and developing the Chinese economy.
By 1935 Mao had become the party's Politburo Standing Committee member and informal leader, with Zhou Enlai and Zhang Wentian, the formal head of the party, serving as his informal deputies.

Korean War

KoreaKoreanKorea War
Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China.
Because the United States had sent the Seventh Fleet to "neutralize" the Taiwan Strait, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai criticized both the UN and US initiatives as "armed aggression on Chinese territory".

Huai'an

HuaianHuaiyinQingjiang
Zhou Enlai was born in Huai'an, Jiangsu province on 5 March 1898, the first son of his branch of the Zhou family.
Huai'an is a relatively small city in Chinese terms, but it produced three of the most important people in Chinese history: Han Xin, the renowned general who helped found the Han Dynasty, Wu Cheng'en (1500–1582), Ming Dynasty novelist, author of the Journey to the West; and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), prominent Communist Party of China leader, Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1949 till death.

Nankai University

NankaiUniversity Nan-k'aiNankai became a university
When Nankai became a university in August 1919, Zhou was in the first class, but was an activist full-time.
Nankai's alumni include the first Premier of the People's Republic of China Zhou Enlai, mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern and Nobel laureates Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee.

Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China

Vice ChairmanVice Chairman of the Party Central CommitteeVice-Chairman
As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor (the third person after Liu Shaoqi and Lin), but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China.

Deng Xiaoping

DengDeng Xiao PingChairman Deng
Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng as First Vice Chairman and designated successor, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978. This group included such later prominent figures as Cai Hesen, Li Lisan, Chen Yi, Nie Rongzhen, Deng Xiaoping and also Guo Longzhen, another member of the Awakening Society.
In La Garenne-Colombes Deng met Zhou Enlai, Nie Rongzhen, Cai Hesen, Zhao Shiyan and Li Wenhai.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
Zhou served under Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and later in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, and developing the Chinese economy.
Although he was proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, Mao's power was diminished, as his control of the Red Army was allocated to Zhou Enlai.

10th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

10th10th Central Committee10th CCP Central Committee
As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor (the third person after Liu Shaoqi and Lin), but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China.

K. C. Wu

Wu, K. C.Wu Kuo-chenK.C. Wu
Zhou's friends and classmates there ranged from Ma Jun (an early communist leader executed in 1927) to K. C. Wu (later mayor of Shanghai and governor of Taiwan under the Nationalist party).
He studied at both Tianjin Nankai High School, where Zhou Enlai was a classmate, and at Tsinghua University.

Deng Yingchao

It was in this society that Zhou first met his future wife, Deng Yingchao.
Deng Yingchao (February 4, 1904 – July 11, 1992) was the Chairwoman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1983 to 1988, a member of the Communist Party of China, and the wife of the first Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai.

1954 Geneva Conference

Geneva ConferenceGeneva Accordspartition of Vietnam
Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China.
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, an anticommunist, forbade any contact with the Chinese delegation, refusing to shake hands with Zhou Enlai, the lead Chinese negotiator.

Nie Rongzhen

Marshal NieMarshal Nie Rongzheng
This group included such later prominent figures as Cai Hesen, Li Lisan, Chen Yi, Nie Rongzhen, Deng Xiaoping and also Guo Longzhen, another member of the Awakening Society.
Zhou Enlai spent a night in Charleroi and met with Nie.

Gang of Four

The Gang Of FourGang of ''FourGang of Four (China)
As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected to the vacant position of First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor (the third person after Liu Shaoqi and Lin), but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China.
Premier Zhou Enlai, who had accepted the Cultural Revolution, but never fully supported it, regained his authority, and used it to bring Deng Xiaoping back into the Party leadership at the 10th Party Congress in 1973.

Qian Zhuangfei

The three most successful agents used by Zhou to infiltrate the KMT secret police were Qian Zhuangfei, Li Kenong, and Hu Di, who Zhou referred to as "the three most distinguished intelligence workers of the Party" in the 1930s.
His quick reaction allowed the Communist leadership in Shanghai to evacuate, and he was credited with saving the lives of top leaders including Zhou Enlai, later the Premier of China.

Republic of China Military Academy

Whampoa Military AcademyWhampoa AcademyHuangpu Military Academy
Zhou returned to China in late August or early September 1924 to join the Political Department of the Whampoa Military Academy, probably through the influence of Zhang Shenfu, who had previously worked there.
Zhou Enlai, Hu Hanmin and Wang Jingwei were instructors in the political department.

Sino-Soviet split

Sino–Soviet splitSino-Soviet tensionsSoviet rival
He helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the United States, Taiwan, the Soviet Union (after 1960), India and Vietnam.
In late 1964, after Nikita Khrushchev had been deposed as Soviet leader, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai met with the new Soviet leaders, First Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and Premier Alexei Kosygin, but their ideological differences proved a diplomatic impasse to renewed economic relations.

Tianjin Nankai High School

Nankai High SchoolNankai Middle School
In 1913, Zhou's uncle was transferred to Tianjin, where Zhou entered the famous Nankai Middle School.
The most famous graduate of Nankai High School was Zhou Enlai, the first Premier of the People's Republic of China.