A report on Zimbabwe

Towers of Great Zimbabwe.
A Matabele kraal, as depicted by William Cornwallis Harris, 1836
The Union Jack was raised over Fort Salisbury on 13 September 1890
The Battle of the Shangani on 25 October 1893
1953 stamp with the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 November 1965 with his cabinet in audience.
Bishop Abel Muzorewa signs the Lancaster House Agreement seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.
Trends in Zimbabwe's Multidimensional Poverty Index, 1970–2010.
Map showing the food insecurity in Zimbabwe in June 2008
Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe attended the Independence Day celebrations in South Sudan in July 2011
The Zambezi River in the Mana Pools National Park.
Zimbabwe map of Köppen climate classification.
An elephant at a water hole in Hwange National Park.
Parliament of Zimbabwe in Harare
Supporters of the Movement for Democratic Change in 2005.
The flag of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces.
A demonstration in London against Robert Mugabe. Protests are discouraged by Zimbabwean police in Zimbabwe.
Administrative divisions of Zimbabwe
Historical GDP per capita development in southern african countries, since 1950
A proportional representation of Zimbabwe exports, 2019
A market in Mbare, Harare
The GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100).
Victoria Falls, the end of the upper Zambezi and beginning of the middle Zambezi.
Scientific research output in terms of publications in Southern Africa, cumulative totals by field, 2008–2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.6
Scientific publication trends in the most productive SADC countries, 2005–2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
A n'anga (Traditional Healer) of the Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet
A Tonga woman pleating a basket
"Reconciliation", a stone sculpture by Amos Supuni
A meal of sadza (right), greens, and goat offal. The goat's small intestines are wrapped around small pieces of large intestines before cooking.
Raw boerewors
Zimbabwe women's national football team at the 2016 Olympic Games
Baden-Powell's drawing of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matobo Hills, 1896
Traditional Zimbabwe Bird design
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Mother of Peace AIDS orphanage, Mutoko (2005)
Map showing the spread of cholera in and around Zimbabwe put together from several sources.
St George's College, Harare was established in 1896 by a French Jesuit
Catholic church in Harare

Landlocked country located in Southeast Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambique to the east.

- Zimbabwe

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Mugabe in 1979

Robert Mugabe

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Mugabe in 1979
Mugabe was inspired by the example set by Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah.
Nkomo became one of the leading figures of resistance to white minority rule in Southern Rhodesia.
While Mugabe was imprisoned, Ian Smith became leader of Rhodesia.
The flag of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)
Mugabe in a meeting with Romanian communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1979
Lancaster House in London's St James's district
Statues atop the tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Heroes' Acre; the monument was designed by North Korean architects who reported directly to Mugabe
Mugabe with US president Ronald Reagan in 1983
Prime Minister Mugabe departs Andrews Air Force Base after a state visit to the United States in 1983
Mugabe in the Netherlands, 1982
The flag of ZAPU, which was largely eliminated by ZANU-PF in the Gukurahundi
The Gukurahundi took place in Zimbabwe's western provinces of Matabeleland (highlighted).
British prime minister Tony Blair, with whom Mugabe had a particularly antagonistic relationship
Morgan Tsvangirai led the MDC to growing success in opposing Mugabe's regime in the 2000 parliamentary election.
Mugabe in 2008
Mugabe in 2011
Mugabe and his wife in 2013
Mugabe meeting Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe in 2016
Mugabe meeting Russian president Vladimir Putin in 2015
Mugabe's first wife, Sally Hayfron, in 1983
Example of foreign criticism: a demonstration against Mugabe's regime next to the Zimbabwe embassy in London (mid-2006)

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.

Rhodesia

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Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Rhodesian soldier interrogating villagers in late 1977 at gunpoint. This photograph would become one of the most enduring images of the bush war.
A Rhodesian servicewoman taking aim with her Browning Hi-Power 9×19mm semi-automatic pistol; from a 1976 army recruitment poster
Signing of the Rhodesian Internal Settlement (from left: Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ian Smith, Jeremiah Chirau and Ndabaningi Sithole)
The presidential flag of Rhodesia
Administrative divisions of Rhodesia
Troops of the Rhodesian Armoured Corps in 1979

Rhodesia, officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in Southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.

Zambia

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Landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, and also is typically referred to as being in South-Central Africa.

Landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, and also is typically referred to as being in South-Central Africa.

Ancient (but graffitied) Rock Art in Nsalu Cave, Kasanka National Park in North-Central Zambia.
Batonga fisherwomen in Southern Zambia. Women have played and continue to play important roles in many African societies.
Ruins z q r. of Great Zimbabwe. Kalanga/Shona rulers of this kingdom dominated trade at Ingombe Ilede.
Drawing of the ruler of Lunda, Mwata Kazembe, receiving Portuguese in the royal courtyard in the 1800s
A drawing of Lunda houses by a Portuguese visitor. The size of the doorways relative to the building emphasizes the scale of the buildings.
The kalonga (ruler) of the AChewa today descends from the kalonga of the Maravi Empire.
Three young Ngoni chiefs. The Ngoni made their way into Eastern Zambia from KwaZulu in South Africa. They eventually assimilated into the local ethnic groups.
Inside the palace of the Litunga, ruler of the Lozi. Due to the flooding on the Zambezi, the Litunga has two palaces one of which is on higher ground. The movement of Litunga to higher land is celebrated at the Kuomboka Ceremony
An 1864 photograph of the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone.
Kenneth Kaunda, first Republican president, on a state visit to Romania in 1970
The geopolitical situation during the Rhodesian Bush War in 1965 – countries friendly to the nationalists are coloured orange.
Zambia National Assembly building in Lusaka
President Edgar Lungu with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 26 July 2018
Zambia map of Köppen climate classification.
Victoria Falls
The Mwata Kazembe opens the Mutomboko ceremony
Tribal and linguistic map of Zambia
Pupils at the St Monica's Girls Secondary School in Chipata, Eastern Province
A proportional representation of Zambia exports, 2019
Zambia Export Treemap (2014)
GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100)
The major Nkana open copper mine, Kitwe.
Nshima (top right corner) with three types of relish.
A Yombe sculpture, 19th century.
National Heroes Stadium in Lusaka.

Its neighbors are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west.

Harare

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The Pioneer Column hoists the Union Jack on the kopje overlooking the city, 13 September 1890.
Salisbury in 1930
Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (now Samora Machel Avenue, Harare) in 1970
New Reserve Bank Tower, completed 1997
Jacaranda trees in Montagu Ave, Salisbury in 1975
Robert Gabriel Mugabe International Airport
National Gallery of Zimbabwe
Sam Nujoma Street, view south
Anglican Cathedral of St Mary and All Saints
Downtown Harare, Reserve Bank ahead
First Street
Along parliament buildings
Harare Central Station
Eastgate centre
Relief at National Heroes Acre
National Heroes Acre

Harare (formerly Salisbury ) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.

Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence

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Statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Southern Rhodesia or simply Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.

Statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Southern Rhodesia or simply Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.

Southern Rhodesia (or Rhodesia), highlighted in red on a map of Africa
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953–63)
Ian Smith replaced Winston Field as Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister in April 1964, and pledged to challenge Britain on independence.
UK Prime Minister Sir Alec Douglas-Home met Smith in London in September 1964.
Harold Wilson replaced Douglas-Home in October 1964, and proved a formidable opponent of Smith.
10 Downing Street, where Wilson received Smith in January 1965
The United States Declaration of Independence was used by the Rhodesians as the model for their UDI.
Rhodesian politicians signing the UDI under a portrait of the Queen
The front page of the Rhodesia Heralds 12 November 1965 edition. Note the blank spaces where content was removed by state censors.
Rhodesia House, the Rhodesian High Commission in London, represented Smith's government in the UK until 1969, and became a regular target for political activists.
Bishop Abel Muzorewa, the country's first black Prime Minister, whose unrecognised government revoked UDI in 1979 as part of the Lancaster House Agreement

Following a brief period of direct British rule, the country was granted internationally recognised independence under the name Zimbabwe in 1980.

ZANU–PF

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Delegates from Zimbabwe and ZANU-PF Youth League dance at the ending of the World Festival of Youth and Students in Johannesburg 2010.

The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) is a political organisation which has been the ruling party of Zimbabwe since independence in 1980.

Bishop Abel Muzorewa signs the Lancaster House Agreement seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.

Lancaster House Agreement

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Bishop Abel Muzorewa signs the Lancaster House Agreement seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.

The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War; and directly led to Rhodesia achieving internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe.

Rhodes, c. undefined 1900

Cecil Rhodes

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British mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.

British mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.

Rhodes, c. undefined 1900
Rhodes as a boy
Rhodes' birthplace, now part of Bishop's Stortford Museum; the bedroom in which he was born is marked by a plaque.
Rhodes at the age of sixteen
A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.
Preference Share of the De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., issued 1. March 1902
Sketch of Rhodes by Violet Manners
Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)
"The Rhodes Colossus" – a cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo in 1892.
Rhodes and the Ndebele izinDuna make peace in the Matopos Hills, as depicted by Robert Baden-Powell, 1896
"Empire Makers And Breakers" depicted by Henry Wright, showing A Scene at the South Africa Committee in 1897. Left to right: Her Majesty's Attorney-General Richard Webster, Henry Labouchère (remembered for the Labouchère Amendment, which for the first time criminalised all male homosexual activity), Cecil Rhodes, 'The Squire of Malwood' William Harcourt, and Joseph Chamberlain.
Rhodes' personal flag symbolising his "Cape to Cairo" dream
Map showing almost complete British control of the Cape to Cairo route, 1913
Cecil Rhodes
Rhodes by Mortimer Menpes, 1901
French caricature of Rhodes, showing him trapped in Kimberley during the Second Boer War, here peering from a tower clutching papers, with a champagne bottle behind his collar.
Funeral procession of Rhodes in Adderley Street, Cape Town, on 3 April 1902
Rhodes House, Oxford, in 2004.
Rhodes Memorial at Devil's Peak (Cape Town).
Statue of Rhodes in Kimberley.
Noseless bust at the Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town

An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company colonized the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.

Mnangagwa in 2017

Emmerson Mnangagwa

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Mnangagwa in 2017
Mnangagwa in 2019
The Gukurahundi took place in Zimbabwe's western provinces of Matabeleland (pictured)
Kinshasa, where Mnangagwa was often based during the Second Congo War.
Mnangagwa speaking in 2015
Mnangagwa with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev in January 2019
A graph of data released by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe showing the spike in inflation in the months leading up to the fuel rate hike

Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa (, US: ; born 15 September 1942) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who has served as President of Zimbabwe since 24 November 2017.

Botswana

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Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

The 'Two Rhino' painting at Tsodilo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
German map of 1905 still showing the undivided Bechuanaland area
Sechele I who led a Batswana Merafe Coalition against Boers in 1852
3 Dikgosi Monument: Khama III, Sebele I & Bathoen I who negotiated a Protectorate
Postage stamp of British-ruled Bechuanaland from 1960
Botswana map of Köppen climate classification.
Zebras roaming the Okavango Basin
The current president, Mokgweetsi Masisi
High Court of Botswana
Botswana soldiers board a Botswana Defence Force plane to Mozambique, July 2021
New Gaborone Central Business District
Graphical depiction of Botswana's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.
GDP per capita of Botswana, 1950 to 2018
GDP per capita (current), % of world average, 1960–2012; Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia
Population pyramid 2016
Gaborone Hindu Temple
Unity Dow, author of Far and Beyon, The Screaming of the Innocent and Heavens May Fall
Francistown Stadium
Physicist in a Lab at Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Deaftronics Solar Powered Hearing Aid
Cubesat miniaturized satellite
Scottish Livingstone Hospital in Molepolole
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Tourist on a safari boat cruise
I-Towers, Gaborone Central Business District
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia

It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.