Zingiberales

Zingiberales sp.zingiberaleans
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.wikipedia
217 Related Articles

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
The order includes many familiar plants, and are used as ornamental plants (Bird of Paradise flower, heliconias, prayer-plants), food crops (bananas, plantains, arrowroot), spices and traditional medicines (ginger, cardamom, turmeric, galangal and myoga).
The APG III system assigns Musaceae to the order Zingiberales, part of the commelinid clade of the monocotyledonous flowering plants.

Commelinales

The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.
The order's closest relatives are in the Zingiberales, which includes ginger, bananas, cardamom, and others.

Cronquist system

CronquistCronquist classification (1981)broad concept
In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Order Zingiberales

Scitamineae

S CITAMINEÆ
For a brief history of the taxonomy of this order, see Scitamineae, and Kress 1990.
Historically it has been applied to a remarkably stable group of flowering plants, now referred to as Zingiberales:

Hutchinson system

Hutchinson Hutchinson system of plant taxonomyHis work on this
Hutchinson (1926), although initially using Scitamineae, later followed Takenoshin Nakai (1930).

Canna (plant)

Cannacannasachira
family Cannaceae Juss. (1/10 Canna cannas)
The closest living relations to cannas are the other plant families of the order Zingiberales, that is the Zingiberaceae (gingers), Musaceae (bananas), Marantaceae, Heliconiaceae, Strelitziaceae, etc.

Costaceae

Costus family
family Costaceae Nakai (7/143 e.g. Costus spiral gingers)
It belongs to the order Zingiberales, which contains horticulturally and economically important plants such as the banana (Musaceae), bird-of-paradise (Strelitziaceae), and edible ginger (Zingiberaceae).

APG IV system

APG IV (2016)APG IVAPG IV classification system
The 2003 revision (APG II) changed commelinoid to commelinid, but not the relationships, and this remained unchanged in the subsequent 2009 APG III system and 20016 APG IV system without addressing interfamilial relationships.
Zingiberales Griseb.

APG III system

APG III classification systemAPG III2009
The 2003 revision (APG II) changed commelinoid to commelinid, but not the relationships, and this remained unchanged in the subsequent 2009 APG III system and 20016 APG IV system without addressing interfamilial relationships.
order Zingiberales

Musaceae

banana familybanana and plantainbananas
family Musaceae Juss. (3/91 e.g. Musa bananas)
Musaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of three genera with ca 91 known species, placed in the order Zingiberales.

Banana-families

banana group
A "banana group" of four families appeared first and were named on the basis of large banana like leaves.
The "banana-families" or banana group is a basal paraphyletic assemblage in the order Zingiberales (:Monocotyledoneae) that comprises Musaceae (the banana family), Lowiaceae, Strelitziaceae, and Heliconiaceae.

Ginger-families

ginger group
Later, a more genetically coherent (monophyletic) "ginger group" appeared, consisting of the remaining four families.
The ginger-families or ginger group or Core Zingiberales is a terminal clade in the order Zingiberales (:Monocotyledoneae) that comprises Zingiberaceae (the ginger family), Costaceae, Marantaceae and Cannaceae.

Liliopsida

Burmannia disticha
In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
superorder Zingiberanae

Cardamom

cardamonGreen Cardamomcardamum
The order includes many familiar plants, and are used as ornamental plants (Bird of Paradise flower, heliconias, prayer-plants), food crops (bananas, plantains, arrowroot), spices and traditional medicines (ginger, cardamom, turmeric, galangal and myoga).

Heliconia

Heliconia bihaiHeliconian flowersheliconias
The order includes many familiar plants, and are used as ornamental plants (Bird of Paradise flower, heliconias, prayer-plants), food crops (bananas, plantains, arrowroot), spices and traditional medicines (ginger, cardamom, turmeric, galangal and myoga).
However, the APG system of 1998, and its successor, the APG II system of 2003, confirm the Heliconiaceae as distinct and places them in the order Zingiberales, in the commelinid clade of monocots.

Takhtajan system

Takhtajanhis systemthat system
This usage was followed by Takhtajan (1966) within superorder Lilianae and by Dahlgren (1985) in its own superorder Zingiberiflorae.
Order Zingiberales p. 498

Strelitziaceae

Bird of Paradise family
family Strelitziaceae Hutch. (3/7 e.g. Strelitzia birds of paradise)
The APG II system assigns the Strelitziaceae to the order Zingiberales in the commelinid clade.

APG II system

APG II2003APG II 2003
The 2003 revision (APG II) changed commelinoid to commelinid, but not the relationships, and this remained unchanged in the subsequent 2009 APG III system and 20016 APG IV system without addressing interfamilial relationships.
order Zingiberales

Marantaceae

arrowroot familyMarantaprayer plants
family Marantaceae R.Br. (29/570 e.g. Maranta prayer plants)
The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Zingiberales in the clade commelinids in the monocots.

Zingiberidae

In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
order Zingiberales

Poales

Graminales
The phylogenetic position of Poales within the commelinids was difficult to resolve, but an analysis using complete chloroplast DNA found support for Poales as sister group of Commelinales plus Zingiberales.

Lilianae

This usage was followed by Takhtajan (1966) within superorder Lilianae and by Dahlgren (1985) in its own superorder Zingiberiflorae.
Ordo Zingiberales

Commelinids

commelinidcommelinid monocotscommelinoids
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.

Monocotyledon

monocotmonocotsmonocotyledonous
In contrast the Cronquist system retained Scitamineae as the name for this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Zingiberales are one of an ecologically and morphologically diverse and species rich order of monocots, with one of the most distinct floral morphology.
Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including (orchids (Asparagales), tulips and lilies) (Liliales), rosette and succulent epiphytes (Asparagales), mycoheterotrophs (Liliales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales), all in the lilioid monocots, major cereal grains (maize, rice, barley, rye and wheat) in the grass family and forage grasses (Poales) as well as woody tree-like palm trees (Arecales), bamboo, reeds and bromeliads (Poales), bananas and ginger (Zingiberales) in the commelinid monocots, as well as both emergent (Poales, Acorales) and aroids, as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass (Alismatales).

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.