Zoetrope

3D zoetropemoving picture advertisingthree-dimensional zoetropezoetropes
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.wikipedia
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Animation

animatedanimated film3D animation
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.

William George Horner

HornerWilliam HornerW. G. Horner
After taking notice of Joseph Plateau's invention of the phénakisticope (published in London as "phantasmascope") British mathematician William George Horner thought up a cylindrical variation and published details about its mathematical principles in January 1834.
The modern invention of the zoetrope, under the name Daedaleum in 1834, has been attributed to him.

Phenakistiscope

phenakistoscopephénakisticopeearly moving picture
The zoetrope works on the same principle as its predecessor, the phenakistoscope, but is more convenient and allows the animation to be viewed by several people at the same time. Simon Stampfer, one of the inventors of the phenakistiscope animation disc (or "stroboscope discs" as he called them), suggested in July 1833 in a pamphlet that the sequence of images for the stroboscopic animation could be placed on either a disc, a cylinder or a looped strip of paper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers.
Unlike the zoetrope and other successors, common versions of the phénakisticope could only practically be viewed by one person at a time.

Simon von Stampfer

von Stampfer, Simon
Simon Stampfer, one of the inventors of the phenakistiscope animation disc (or "stroboscope discs" as he called them), suggested in July 1833 in a pamphlet that the sequence of images for the stroboscopic animation could be placed on either a disc, a cylinder or a looped strip of paper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers.
Almost simultaneously similar devices were produced independently in Belgium (the phenakistiskop), and Britain (the zoetrope).

Precursors of film

pre-filmoptical toyspre-cinema
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.
Moving images were produced on revolving drums and disks in the 1830s with independent invention by Simon von Stampfer (Stroboscope) in Austria, Joseph Plateau (Phenakistoscope) in Belgium and William Horner (zoetrope) in Britain.

Ding Huan

According to a 4th-century Chinese historical text, the 1st-century BCE Chinese Han craftsman Ding Huan created a lamp with a circular band with images of birds and animals that moved "quite naturally" when the heat of the lamp caused the band to rotate.
In his multi-volume Science and Civilisation in China, the British scientist and historian Joseph Needham briefly describes several devices he classes as "... a variety of zoetrope, which may well have originated in China".

Myrtle Avenue (BMT Fourth Avenue Line)

Myrtle AvenueBMT Fourth Avenue Linesubway station
In September 1980, independent filmmaker Bill Brand installed a type of linear zoetrope he called the "Masstransiscope" in an unused subway platform at the former Myrtle Avenue station on the New York City Subway.
In 1980 the Masstransiscope zoetrope artwork by Bill Brand was installed in the station.

Skymetro

Zurich Airport Skymetro
The Zurich Airport Skymetro features a linear zoetrope.
The tunnels of the Skymetro are equipped with Zoetrope-like films displayed on the sides, with each film consisting of a series of still frames in rapid succession, accompanied by matching sound effects played over the vehicles' public address system.

Ghibli Museum

Studio Ghibli Museum
The Ghibli Museum in Tokyo, Japan hosts a 3D zoetrope featuring characters from the animated movie My Neighbour Totoro. The zoetrope is accompanied by an explanatory display, and is part of an exhibit explaining the principles of animation and historical devices.
On the bottom floor is an exhibit room showing the history and science of animation, including a three-dimensional zoetrope named "Bouncing Totoro", with models of characters from My Neighbor Totoro (1988).

Chronophotography

chronophotographerchronophotographicchronophotographs
This variation was suggested by several inventors including Étienne-Jules Marey, who in 1887 used a large zoetrope to animate a series of plaster models based on his chronophotographs of birds in flight.
Muybridge also arranged such sequences of photographs in order around the inner surface of a zoetrope; when the drum-like device was set spinning, an observer looking through its slots saw an animated image.

Flip book

flipbookflip-bookflip-books
Soon after the zoetrope became popular, the flip book was introduced in 1868.
It has sometimes been assumed that the relatively simple flip book has been around since long before the invention of the more complicated 19th century animation devices like the phenakistiscope (1832) and the zoetrope (1866), but no conclusive evidence has been found.

Praxinoscope

praxinoscopes
Émile Reynaud's 1877 praxinoscope was an improvement on the zoetrope that became popular toward the end of the 19th century.
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.

PATH (rail system)

PATHPATH trainsPATH train
A similar advertisement was installed on the PATH train in New Jersey, between the World Trade Center and Exchange Place stations.
On trains bound for Newark or Hoboken from World Trade Center, a short, zoetrope-like advertisement was formerly visible in the tunnel before entering Exchange Place.

Film

motion picturemoviecinema
While cinema proved to be an enormous success, the Kinora became a popular motion picture viewer for home use.
In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the later zoetrope demonstrated that a carefully designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects actually moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate.

Strobe light

strobestrobe lightsstrobes
Modern equivalents normally dispense with the slitted drum and instead use a rapidly flashing strobe light to illuminate the models, producing much clearer and sharper distortion-free results.
Zoetrope

Stroboscopic effect

stroboscopicstrobe effectstroboscopically
The stroboscopic effect makes each seem to be a single animated object.
3D zoetrope

Pixar

Pixar Animation StudiosDisney/PixarDisney Pixar
Pixar created a 3D zoetrope inspired by Ghibli's for its touring exhibition, which first showed at the Museum of Modern Art and features characters from Toy Story.
Another highlight is the Zoetrope, where visitors of the exhibition are shown figurines of Toy Story characters "animated" in real-life through the zoetrope.

House on Haunted Hill (1999 film)

House on Haunted Hill19991999 remake
The 1999 film House on Haunted Hill uses a man-sized zoetrope chamber as a twisted horror theme.
Eddie knocks him out and they lock Price in the "Saturation Chamber", an archaic zoetrope device that Vannacutt used to treat schizophrenics.

Phonotrope

Phonotrope
It is a contemporary reworking of the zoetrope, one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.

The Conjuring 2

In the 2016 horror film The Conjuring 2, there is the usage of a zoetrope in one of the scenes.
After returning home to the United States, Ed adds an item to his and Lorraine's collection – "The Crooked Man" zoetrope toy owned by Peggy's youngest child Billy – placing it beside April's music box and in front of Annabelle doll.

Jeff Zwart

In 2013, director Jeff Zwart created a two-minute film, "Forza/Filmspeed", promoting Forza Motorsport 5.
On September 20, 2013, working with San Francisco-based advertising agency twofifteenmccan, Zwart revealed the world’s fastest Zoetrope in the form of a two-minute film entitled “Forza/Filmspeed.”

Barrier grid animation and stereography

Scanimation
Kinegram
He describes his kinegrams as "optic kinetic media" that "artfully combine the visual effects of moiré patterns with the zoetrope animation technique".

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The name zoetrope was composed from the Greek root words ζωή zoe, "life" and τρόπος tropos, "turning" as a transliteration of "wheel of life".

History of Iranian animation

IranIran's animationIranian animation
An earthenware bowl from Iran, over 5000 years old, could be considered a predecessor of the zoetrope.