Zoning

zonedrezoningzoning lawszoning lawzoning ordinancezonerezonedzonesrezonesingle-use zoning
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.wikipedia
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Land-use planning

land use planningplanningland use
Thus, zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by local governments in most developed countries.
Land use planning often leads to land use regulation, which typically encompasses zoning.

Residential area

residentialresidential developmentresidential building
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited. Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot (setbacks), the proportions of the types of space on a lot, such as how much landscaped space, impervious surface, traffic lanes, and whether or not parking is provided.
Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and industry.

Variance (land use)

variancevarianceszoning variance
Most zoning systems have a procedure for granting variances (exceptions to the zoning rules), usually because of some perceived hardship caused by the particular nature of the property in question.
A variance is a deviation from the set of rules a municipality applies to land use and land development, typically a zoning ordinance, building code or municipal code.

Parking

airport parkingPaid parkingfree parking
Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot (setbacks), the proportions of the types of space on a lot, such as how much landscaped space, impervious surface, traffic lanes, and whether or not parking is provided.
For example, in 2006 the San Francisco Board of Supervisors considered a controversial zoning plan to limit the number of motor vehicle parking spaces available in new residential developments.

By-law

bylawsbylawby-laws
Legally, a zoning plan is usually enacted as a by-law with the respective procedures.

Land lot

lotlotsparcel
Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot (setbacks), the proportions of the types of space on a lot, such as how much landscaped space, impervious surface, traffic lanes, and whether or not parking is provided.
Local governments often pass zoning laws which control what buildings can be built on a lot and what they can be used for.

Planning permission

construction permitlocal planningCP
The type of zone determines whether planning permission for a given development is granted.
This type of permit is issued by a national broadcasting authority, but does not imply zoning any other permission that must be given by local government.

Commercial area

commercialcommercial areascommercial center
Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy, the location of a building on the lot (setbacks), the proportions of the types of space on a lot, such as how much landscaped space, impervious surface, traffic lanes, and whether or not parking is provided.
Cities often use zoning laws to prevent conflicts between residential homeowners and businesses.

Euclid, Ohio

EuclidEuclid, OHEuclid Village
Single-use zoning became known as Euclidean zoning because of a court case in Euclid, Ohio, which established its constitutionality, Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co..

Boarding house

boardinghouseboarding houseslodging house
In the United States, zoning was used by neighborhoods to limit boarding houses.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALos Angeles, United States
In 1904, Los Angeles established the nation's first land-use restrictions for a portion of the city.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States.

Exclusionary zoning

These exclusionary zoning measures artificially maintain high housing costs through various land-use regulations such as maximum density requirements.
Exclusionary zoning is the use of zoning ordinances to exclude certain types of land uses from a given community.

Floor area ratio

plot ratioFloor Space IndexFAR
New York City went on to develop ever more complex regulations, including floor-area ratio regulations, air rights and others for specific neighborhoods.
The terms can also refer to limits imposed on such a ratio through zoning.

Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.

Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co.Euclid v. AmblerEuclid v. Ambler Realty
Single-use zoning became known as Euclidean zoning because of a court case in Euclid, Ohio, which established its constitutionality, Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co.. The constitutionality of zoning ordinances was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1926 case Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. Among large populated cities in the United States, Houston is unique in having no zoning ordinances.
It was the first significant case regarding the relatively new practice of zoning, and served to substantially bolster zoning ordinances in towns nationwide in the United States and in other countries of the world including Canada.

Equitable Building (Manhattan)

Equitable Building120 BroadwayBankers Club
In 1916, New York City adopted the first zoning regulations to apply citywide as a reaction to The Equitable Building which towered over the neighboring residences, diminishing the availability of sunshine.
This contributed to the adoption of the first modern building and zoning restrictions on vertical structures in Manhattan, the 1916 Zoning Resolution.

Houston

Houston, TexasHouston, TXCity of Houston
The constitutionality of zoning ordinances was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1926 case Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co. Among large populated cities in the United States, Houston is unique in having no zoning ordinances.
Though Houston is the largest city in the United States without formal zoning regulations, it has developed similarly to other Sun Belt cities because the city's land use regulations and legal covenants have played a similar role.

Land use

land-useuseuse of land
Development control or planning control is the element of the United Kingdom's system of town and country planning through which local government regulates land use and new building.
Land use plans are implemented through land division and use ordinances and regulations, such as zoning regulations.

Town and country planning in the United Kingdom

town and country planningplanningtown planning
Development control or planning control is the element of the United Kingdom's system of town and country planning through which local government regulates land use and new building.
It did not introduce a formal system of zoning as used in the United States.

Urban planning

Planningurban developmenttown planning
Thus, zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by local governments in most developed countries.
Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, and building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants.

Inclusionary zoning

Inclusionary Housingdeed-restrictedinclusionarily zone
The term inclusionary zoning indicates that these ordinances seek to counter exclusionary zoning practices, which aim to exclude low-cost housing from a municipality through the zoning code.

Form-based code

Form-based codesForm based codesform-based
There are a great variety of zoning types, some of which focus on regulating building form and the relation of buildings to the street with mixed-uses, known as form-based, others with separating land uses, known as use-based or a combination thereof.
Tradition has declined as a guide to development patterns, and the widespread adoption by cities of single-use zoning regulations has discouraged compact, walkable urbanism.

New Urbanism

New UrbanistCongress for the New UrbanismCongress for New Urbanism
Jacob's writings, along with increasing public dissatisfaction with the attendant problems of urban sprawl, is often credited with inspiring the New Urbanism movement and the ensuing body of literature concerned with solutions to uneven city development.
Specifically, after World War II urban planning largely centered around the use of municipal zoning ordinances to segregate residential from commercial and industrial development, and focused on the construction of low-density single-family detached houses as the preferred housing format for the growing middle class.

Spot zoning

spot zone
Spot zoning is the application of zoning to a specific parcel or parcels of land within a larger zoned area when the rezoning is usually at odds with a city's master plan and current zoning restrictions.

Agricultural protection zoning

In the United States, agricultural protection zoning refers to local zoning codes that include provisions such as large lot size requirements and use limitations to separate farming and related activities from other land uses.