Zulu Kingdom

ZululandZuluZulusNatalZulu nationZulu Empire NatalNatal, South AfricaKingdom of ZululandZulu chiefs
The Kingdom of Zulu, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.wikipedia
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Anglo-Zulu War

Zulu WarZulu WarsZulu
In 1879, the British Empire invaded, beginning the Anglo-Zulu War.
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

Battle of Isandlwana

IsandlwanaIsandhlwanabattle of Isandhlwana
After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January, the British Army would regroup and eventually defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi.
The Battle of Isandlwana (alternative spelling: Isandhlwana) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

Battle of Ulundi

UlundiUlindivictory
After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January, the British Army would regroup and eventually defeated the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi.
The Battle of Ulundi took place at the Zulu capital of Ulundi on 4 July 1879 and was the last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War.

Colony of Natal

NatalGovernor of the Colony of NatalLieutenant-governor of the Colony of Natal
The area was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa.
It was originally only about half the size of the present province, with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand (KwaZulu in Zulu).

Dingiswayo

Dingiswayo KaJobe
Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance.
Dingiswayo (c.1780 – 1817) (born Godongwana) was a Mthethwa chief, well known for his mentorship over a young Zulu general, Shaka Zulu, who rose to become the greatest of the Zulu kings.

Mfecane

difaqaneLifaqanedecimated
Within two years, Shaka had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River (1820) and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance, some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni tribes and clans, setting in motion what became known as Defecane or Mfecane, a mass-migration of tribes fleeing the remnants of the Ndwandwe fleeing the Zulu.
As King Shaka created the militaristic Zulu Kingdom in the territory between the Tugela River and Pongola River, his forces caused a wave of warfare and disruption to sweep to other peoples.

Ndwandwe

ShangaanAmashanganeNdwandwe Kingdom
After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance.
The Ndwandwe, with the Mthethwa, were a significant power in present-day Zululand at the turn of the nineteenth century.

Dingane kaSenzangakhona

DinganeDingaanKing Dingane kaSenzangakhona
Shaka was succeeded by Dingane, his half-brother, who conspired with Mhlangana, another half-brother, and Mbopa, an InDuna, to murder him in 1828.
1795–1840)—commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan—was a Zulu chief who became king of the Zulu Kingdom in 1828.

Nandi (mother of Shaka)

NandiNandi kaBhebheNandi kaBhebhe eLangeni
He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa.
Nandi (c. 1760 – October 10, 1827) was a daughter of Bhebhe, a past chief of the Langeni tribe and the mother of the famous Shaka, King of the Zulus.

Battle of Gqokli Hill

The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide's first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill (1818).
The Battle of Gqokli Hill was conducted in about April 1818, a part of the Mfecane, between Shaka of the Zulu nation and Zwide of the Ndwandwe, in Shaka's territory just south of present-day Ulundi ( 28° 22' 23" S 31° 21' 15.77" E).

Mzilikazi

King MzilikaziMoselekatse
An offshoot of the Zulu, the amaNdebele, better known to history as the Matabele created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld and modern-day Zimbabwe.
He was born the son of Matshobana near Mkuze, Zululand (now part of South Africa), and died at Ingama, Matabeleland (near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe).

Great Trek

voortrekkervoortrekkersBoer Trek
In October 1837, the Voortrekker leader Piet Retief visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers.
It was also responsible for the displacement of the Northern Ndebele people, and was one of several decisive factors influencing the decline and collapse of the Zulu Empire.

Mthethwa Paramountcy

MthethwaMtetwa Empire ExpansionMthethwa clan
Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa.
Unlike its successor, the Zulu Kingdom, the Mthethwa Paramountcy was a confederation.

Battle of Blood River

Blood River
The Zulu forces and Dingane suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Blood River on 16 December 1838, when 15 000 Zulu impis (warriors) attacked a group of 470 Voortrekker settlers led by Pretorius.
The Battle of Blood River (Slag van Bloedrivier; iMpi yaseNcome) is the name given for the battle fought between 470 Voortrekkers ("Pioneers"), led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated "10,000 to 15,000" Zulu on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Weenen massacre

laagersattackedBlaauwkranz monument
Dingane's army then attacked and massacred a group of 250 Voortrekker men, women and children camped nearby.
The Weenen Massacre (Bloukransmoorde) was the massacre of Voortrekkers by the Zulu on 17 February 1838.

KwaZulu-Natal

NatalZululandKwaZulu-Natal Province
The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa. In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal.
During the 1830s and early 1840s, the northern part of what is now KwaZulu-Natal was occupied by the Zulu Kingdom while the southern part was, briefly, the Boer republic of Natalia before becoming, in 1843, the British Colony of Natal.

Battle of Ndondakusuka

This culminated in 1856 with the Battle of Ndondakusuka, which left Mbuyazi dead.
The Battle of Ndondakusuka (2 December 1856) was the culmination of a succession struggle in the Zulu kingdom between Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi, the two eldest sons of the king Mpande.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal.
Dissensions speedily arose among the emigrants, whose numbers were constantly added to, and Retief, Potgieter and other leaders crossed the Drakensberg and entered Natal.

Zwide kaLanga

ZwideKing Zwide
After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance.
Knowing this, Zwide planned to destroy the Zulu Empire to secure Ndwandwe domination of Zululand.

Natalia Republic

NataliaNatalRepublic of Natalia
Following the campaign against Dingane, in 1839 the Voortrekkers, under Pretorius, formed the Boer republic of Natalia, south of the Tugela, and west of the British settlement of Port Natal (now Durban).
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the region was inhabited by Xhosa people, who were overrun between 1818 and 1820 by the Zulu Kingdom's military campaigns under Shaka.

Zibhebhu kaMaphitha

ZibhebhuUZibhebhuuZibhebhu kaMaphitha
Later that year, however, Cetshwayo was attacked at Ulundi by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets.
After the defeat of the Zulu Kingdom by the British, he attempted to create his own independent kingdom.

Ulundi

The capital was moved from Nongoma to Ulundi in 1980.
At one time the capital of Zululand in South Africa and later the capital of the Bantustan of KwaZulu, Ulundi now lies in KwaZulu-Natal Province (of which, from 1994 to 2004, it alternated with Pietermaritzburg as the provincial capital).

South Africa

🇿🇦South AfricanRepublic of South Africa
KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people.
Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army.

Henry Bartle Frere

Sir Bartle FrereSir Henry Bartle FrereBartle Frere
On 11 December 1878, with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu, Sir Henry Bartle Frere, on his own initiative and without the approval of the British government, presented an ultimatum to the Zulu king Cetshwayo in terms with which he could not possibly comply.
They also saw that confederation would entail a British invasion of the remaining independent states of the region, such as Zululand and Transvaal, and they correctly predicted war and instability.

Shaka

Shaka ZuluKing ShakaChaka
Shaka Zulu was the illegitimate son of Senzangakona, King of the Zulus.
Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. 1787 – 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu, was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom.